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Brussels Terror Attack: Due to Western Ignorance of the Turning Point of Islam from Civilization to Barbarism – Part IV

Brussels Terror Attack: Due to Western Ignorance of the Turning Point of Islam from Civilization to Barbarism – Part IV

 

By Prof. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis

 

In three earlier articles published under the titles “Brussels Terror Attack: Due to Western Misperceptions – Part I” (https://megalommatiscomments.wordpress.com/2016/03/23/brussels-terror-attack-due-to-western-misperceptions-part-i/), “Brussels Terror Attack: Due to Western Ignorance of Evil Theological Systems – Part II” (https://megalommatiscomments.wordpress.com/2016/03/24/brussels-terror-attack-due-to-western-ignorance-of-evil-theological-systems-part-ii/), and “Brussels Terror Attack: Due to Western Ignorance of the Barbaric Darkness of Ibn Taimiya’s theological system – Part III” (https://megalommatiscomments.wordpress.com/2016/03/25/brussels-terror-attack-due-to-western-ignorance-of-the-barbaric-darkness-of-ibn-taimiyas-theological-system-part-iii/), I first highlighted the Western ignorance of the Muslim World and more specifically the ignorance of the fact that the extremist way of life, mindset and belief are approved and shared by many hundreds of millions of Muslims in countries other than the evil cradle of Salafism / Wahhabism, i.e. Saudi Arabia; I called that dimension of Western misperception of the Islamic World ‘sociopolitical’.

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Then, I proceeded through a historical-religious analysis, emphasizing the putrefaction process caused to the Islamic religion by several Islamic theological systems that were considered heretic when they were incepted and preached, but managed to gradually survive and effectively prevail in our days among most of the world’s Muslim populations.

 

I then established a link between the three successive layers of alteration, distortion, falsification and barbarization of Islam caused by the theological systems of Ahmed ibn Hanbal (8th – 9th c.), Ahmed ibn Taimiyah (13th – 14th c.), and Muhammad ibn Abdulwahhab (18th c.).

 

A most critical dimension of today’s global problem of Islam is the following: although only Saudi Arabia accepts today the heretic Islamic School of Jurisprudence of Ahmed ibn Hanbal (on which depend the other two ulterior theological systems), the theological system of Ibn Taimiya, a vicious heretic and an unconditional Hanbali, although fully rejected as tenebrous at the times of the Islamic Golden Era, is widely accepted today among Muslims, either Hanbali or Hanafi, Maliki, and Shafi’i – the three true and historically valid, and not heretic, Islamic Schools of Jurisprudence.

 

This in itself may not say much to the unspecialized readership. However, if one takes into consideration the fact that Muhammad ibn Abdulwahhab – a barbaric and silly thug, a self-styled Muslim Hanbali theologian, and the founder of modern Wahhabism or Salafism – was the pupil of other ignorant theologians, who were the followers of the evil theological system of Ibn Taimiya, and thus became himself a staunch supporter of Ibn Taimiya, one understands clearly the present disastrous situation of the Muslim world.

 

So, it does not matter whether the entire population and the theological authorities of a Muslim country have contempt for Muhammad ibn Abdulwahhab and reject Wahhabism or Salafism explicitly. It does also not matter whether they proclaim their adherence to the three rightful and lawful Islamic Schools of Jurisprudence (Hanafi, Maliki, and Shafi’i) and reject ibn Hanbal’s system.

 

As long as they accept the abomination of Ibn Taimiya, all Muslims are affected by the Hanbali contamination either they realize it or not. In this case, their declaration of being Hanafi, Maliki or Shafi’i is absolutely worthless and cannot be possibly accepted by any shrewd investigator.

 

As long as they accept the theological obscenity of Ibn Taimiya, all Muslims are inclined to end up Wahhabists and Salafists sooner or later, because the fruit of Ibn Taimiya’s theological lawlessness and political fornication was Muhammad ibn Abdulwahhab, the source of the iniquity and the villainous father of all illiterate, barbaric, heinous and villainous extremists, radicals, and terrorists.

 

The aforementioned historical analysis reveals something critical that both, Islamic terrorists and politically correct Western academia and politicians, have always tried to conceal; in a way, there were Islamic extremists and terrorists who, deeply plunged in illiteracy, ignorance, barbarism and hatred of the “Other”, carried out dreadful acts during the Islamic Ages. Islamic Terrorism is therefore nothing new, and basically it does not pertain to the theological system of Muhammad ibn Abdulwahhab, but to the barbaric lawlessness of Ibn Taimiya, who antedated Abdulwahhab by five centuries and although Hanbali, is accepted by most of today’s Muslim theologians .

 

In this regard, it would be a colossal mistake for Europe, America and the Western World at large to perceive themselves as the true targets of the Islamic Terrorism. They are not, although there is a vast documentation bearing witness to declarations of numerous well-known terrorists and Salafi terror ideologists, who state that the countries of the West are their target.

 

In reality, terrorism is not the basic characteristic of the Islamic terrorists; barbarism is.

 

And as barbaric elements, they hate most the Sciences, the Arts, the Letters, and the Intellectual Life in its entirety; they abhor Philosophy, the Free Thought, the Investigative Spirit, and the Exploratory Mind. And they target above all Spirituality, Meditation, Contemplation and all the spiritual exercises and activities that de facto liberate the soul from the material-materialistic jail wherein all the Salafists and all the Islamic terrorists want to imprison it.

 

The historical dynamics of this deleterious movement has not yet been studied; this is due to the fact that the well anticipated conclusions are extremely harmful to the politically correct theories, attitudes and behaviors.

 

Pretty much like the followers of Ibn Taimiya destroyed Islamic Civilization within the Islamic World before 400-500 years, today’s Islamic terrorists and Salafists intend to bring down the World Civilization and replace it with an immense darkness, injustice, barbarism, tyranny and inhumanity.

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THE TURNING POINT FROM CIVILIZATION TO BARBARISM WITHIN ISLAM – THE TERRORISTS OF THE YEAR 1580!

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And here I reach the point with which I concluded the previous article. There is indeed a particularly critical moment, a specific date that can be taken as the turning point in the down spiral, from Civilization to Barbarism within Islam. This can be safely and accurately determined; it is 1580.

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What happened then and where?

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The fanaticized mob of Istanbul destroyed the Observatory of Istanbul, which was the epitome of the world’s most advanced techniques and technologies with respect to the Islamic Science of Astronomy and Astrology that were both viewed as one science and not two within the context of the Islamic World. The barbaric and abominable deed involved the destruction of thousands of manuscripts, the ruination of hundreds of astronomical instruments that were among the most advanced in the world, numerous killings, and all sorts of violent acts and catastrophes.

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The illiterate masses were guided by villainous and thuggish sheikhs and imams, who were the followers of the heretic system of Ibn Taimiya and therefore hated the Islamic Sciences, and more particularly the one that was considered as the supreme among them, namely Astronomy and Astrology. As per their silly beliefs and their misinterpretation of the Quran, which is an indispensable element of all barbarisms carried out in the name of Islam, the observation of the stars and the deduction of conclusions as regards the future are not permissible in Islam. This is of course an aberration.

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The barbaric masses and their uneducated sheikhs influenced the supreme religious authority, the sheikh-ul Islam, and demanded the destruction of the Observatory, claiming that the wrong prognostication of the Chief Astronomer and Astrologist was a curse sent by their otherwise fake god. As the imperial authorities were not influenced by the intellectual cholera of Ibn Taimiya, the Sultan did not want to destroy this valuable research center that enabled his country to compete at the international level in terms of science and research. Then, upon recommendation of an illiterate and dark mufti, the masses unleashed their evilness and in the course of manifestations they attacked and destroyed the Observatory of Istanbul.

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I herewith include three paragraphs from Wikipedia’s entry on Istanbul Observatory:

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In 1574, Murad III became the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. The empire’s chief astronomer, Taqi ad-Din, petitioned the Sultan to finance the building of a great observatory to rival Ulugh Beg‘s Samarkand observatory. The Sultan approved, and construction was completed in 1577, at nearly the same time as Tycho Brahe‘s observatory at Uraniborg.

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This observatory consisted of two large structures perched on a hill overlooking the European section of Istanbul and offering a wide view of the night sky. Much like a modern institution, the main building was reserved for the library and the living quarters of the staff, while the smaller building housed a collection of instruments built by Taqi ad-Din. These included a giant armillary sphere and an accurate mechanical astronomical clock for measuring the position and speed of the planets. With these instruments, Taqi ad-Din had hoped to update the old astronomical tables describing the motion of the planets, sun, and moon.

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The observatory did not survive to advance the development of astronomy in the Muslim world. Within months of the observatory’s completion, a comet with an enormous tail appeared in the sky and Sultan Murad III demanded a prognostication about it from his astronomer. “Working day and night without food and rest” Taqi ad-Din studied the comet and came up with the prediction that it was “an indication of well-being and splendor,” and would mean a “conquest of Persia”. Unfortunately, instead of well-being a devastating plague followed in some parts of the empire, and several important persons died. Taqi ad-Din was able to carry on his observations for a few more years but eventually opponents of the observatory and prognostication from the heavens prevailed and the observatory was destroyed in 1580. Other sources give the “rise of a clerical faction,” which opposed or at least was indifferent to science, and specifically to “the recommendation of the Chief Mufti” of the Ottomans, as the explanation for the destruction of the observatory.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Istanbul_observatory_of_Taqi_ad-Din
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More details about the Chief Astronomer and Astrologist Taqi ad-Din Muhammad ibn Maaruf can be found in the respective entry of the Wikipedia and the bibliography provided therein.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taqi_ad-Din_Muhammad_ibn_Ma%27ruf
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To be continued

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Brussels Terror Attack: Due to Western Ignorance of the Barbaric Darkness of Ibn Taimiya’s theological system – Part III

Brussels Terror Attack: Due to Western Ignorance of the Barbaric Darkness of Ibn Taimiya’s theological system – Part III

 

By Prof. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis

 

In two earlier articles published under the titles “Brussels Terror Attack: Due to Western Misperceptions – Part I” (https://megalommatiscomments.wordpress.com/2016/03/23/brussels-terror-attack-due-to-western-misperceptions-part-i/) and “Brussels Terror Attack: Due to Western Ignorance of Evil Theological Systems – Part II” (https://megalommatiscomments.wordpress.com/2016/03/24/brussels-terror-attack-due-to-western-ignorance-of-evil-theological-systems-part-ii/), I highlighted the Western ignorance of the Muslim World and more specifically of the fact that the extremist way of life, mindset and belief are approved and shared by many hundreds of millions of Muslims in countries other than the evil cradle of Salafism / Wahhabism, i.e. Saudi Arabia; I called that dimension of Western misperception of the Islamic World ‘sociopolitical’. Then, I proceeded through a historical-religious analysis, emphasizing the putrefaction process caused to the Islamic religion by the different Islamic theological systems, and I established a link between the three successive layers of alteration caused by the theological systems of Ahmed ibn Hanbal, Ahmed ibn Taimiyah, and Muhammad ibn Abdulwahhab. In the present article, I will expand further on the nefarious impact that the barbarism of Ibn Taimiyah had on Islam as religion, spirituality, culture, and civilization.

 

As I described in the previous article, “Ahmed ibn Taimiya was the ugly and perverse child of his time“, meaning the period of the Crusades and the Mongol invasions that resulted in the destruction of Baghdad. In fact, his theological system was an introverted reductionism that triggered an overwhelming indifference for, and an abysmal hatred of, the “other”. These characteristics were intensified by ibn Taimiya’s followers who instructed Muslims to limit themselves to basics and to abstain from any contact with, or study of, the “other”.

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WHY TROUBLES GO DEEPER THAN MERE WAHHABISM: THE EVILNESS OF IBN TAIMIYA’S THEOLOGICAL BARBARISM
Of course, after the year 1291 (Fall of Acre), when the last Crusader was out of the Orient, the Islamic World recovered from the Crusades and the Mongol invasions, and continued to expand in terms of imperial power, advance in terms of civilization, and prosper in terms of economic recovery and wealth accumulation. But there were two main negative points that survived for some centuries, gradually spread across the entire Muslim World, and finally prevailed:

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A – The introversion gained momentum among the populations, irrespective of the success of the armies and the caliphs. It was combined with a genuinely un-Islamic reductionism (I mean of course ontological reductionism) as Ibn Taimiya followers – in order to control the masses – diffused the pathetic opinion that Philosophy, Arts, Letters and Sciences are useless, because “only few things are necessary for man to gain the ticket to the Paradise”: by hating and ignoring the “other” (which is a non-Islamic attitude and stance of life) and by preaching and diffusing this mindset, attitude and behavior, the followers of Ibn Taimiya addressed the fears, the sorrow, and the horror generated among the Muslims because of the Crusaders and the Mongols.

B – The bullying exercised by the masses that followed the theologians, who accepted Ibn Taimiya’s heretic theological system, started having an impact in the long run and progressively all the scholars, scientists, artists, architects, mystics, and philosophers came under attack, got dispersed, and disappeared.

For the first time, around the years 1350-1400, within Islam was formed a driving force which was pushing toward ignorance, darkness, hatred and barbarism. 

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It is obvious that such evil force could not exist without targets. Even worse, the targets had to be close. Shia Muslims and Oriental Christians were the first to be targeted. Then, it was the turn of the mystics, the Sufis, the philosophers, the erudite scholars, the astronomers, the chemists, the architects, the poets, the intellectuals, and the artists.

 

An inherent element of the evilness of Ibn Taimiya’s system is uniformity; the hatred of the other – in and by itself – eliminates every chance for diversity. At the social level, this situation means that you cannot differ, because you then become the “other”, and you get subsequently targeted. This means that you cannot carry out experiments in Chemistry, you cannot make sidereal observations in the Observatory, you cannot meditate, and you cannot explore or study anything, because “only few things are necessary for man to gain the ticket to the Paradise” and because the quasi-totality of the population, who are ignorant and uneducated, are not involved in these activities. This means that, by being a genuine scholar, polymath, mystic, explorer, erudite intellectual, philosopher, scientist, architect, artist or author, you differ, you automatically become the “other”, and consequently you are immediately taken as target.

 

During those centuries many Muslim scholars, polymaths, mystics, explorers, erudite intellectuals, philosophers, scientists, architects, artists or authors were persecuted – not by the power of the Sultan and Caliph but – by the average people at the very local, social level; they were forced to stop their scientific, philosophical, artistic or spiritual activities, they were obliged to move to other countries, and they were killed. And a systematic disregard for the Islamic Spiritual, Intellectual, Academic and Scientific Heritage was imposed, so that average Muslims forget the Golden Era of Islam, i.e. the greatness that the filthy and evil minds of ibn Hanbal and ibn Taimiya were virtually unable to ever reach.

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Last, in cases of illustrious names of the foremost Islamic scholars of the Golden Era of Islam, the likes of al Farabi (Alpharabius), Muhyiddin ibn Arabi, ibn Sina (Avicenna), Nasir al Din al Tusi, ibn Rushd (Averroes), Al Ghazali, and others, they were all systematically, uninterruptedly and viciously denigrated, defamed and execrated by the uneducated, uncultured and sullen followers of the tenebrous theology of ibn Taimiya. This continues down to our times.

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As regards ibn Taimiya, he gave the evil example; speaking against al Ghazali, he said: “This Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, despite his brilliance, his devotion to Allah, his knowledge of kalam and philosophy, his asceticism and spiritual practices and his Sufism, ended up in a state of confusion and resorted to the path of those who claim to find out things through dreams and spiritual methods” (Majmu’ al-Fatawa, vol. 4, p.71).

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It goes without saying that this force destroyed the Islamic Civilization, driving the Muslim World to a bestial level of total insignificance around the years 1600-1700. For reasons which rather pertain to foreign affairs, not one caliph / sultan decided to oppose openly and drastically the force of darkness. We refer mainly to the Ottoman times now, because Sunni Islam in Europe, Asia, and Africa was multi-divided in the period 1300-1500, until Selim I (Yavuz Sultan Selim, the ‘stern’ one) reinstated the Caliphate in its magnitude. When the expanded Ottoman Empire was engaged in ferocious battles against Spain in Western Mediterranean, against Austria-Hungary in Central Europe, against Abyssinia in the Horn of Africa, and occasionally against Iran (and later Russia) in the East, it would be impossible for a Caliph (the Sultan) to trigger a deep social chasm by arresting the followers of the vicious, Satanic theological system of Ahmed ibn Taimiya and by declaring an open war against them. Sultans, in their majority, tried to basically rule against the dark ideas of these ignorant people, without turning openly against them.

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Through the above, one can conclude that a great number of populations that traditionally belonged to and followed the Shaffi’i, Hanafi and Maliki schools of jurisprudence started being gravely affected and genuinely altered because of the socially forced diffusion of the villainous system of Ahmed ibn Taimiya, a Hanbali.

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In a way, viewed through a historical perspective, the diffusion of that system across 96-98% of all the Muslims’ territories (the rest 2-4% representing the Arabian Desert) represents a late and indirect form of Hanbalization of the Shaffi’i, Hanafi and Maliki schools of jurisprudence.

In fact, this process never stopped; it was only spread over and over.

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However, in the whole process, there is particularly critical moment, a date that can be taken as the turning point in the down spiral, from Civilization to Barbarism within Islam. This can be safely and accurately determined; it is 1580. Why this date is so important and what happened then in Istanbul are essential for the entire world to know, because today’s tragic events and terror attacks are only a mere reproduction of that ominous day.

 

(to be continued)

 

 

 

Brussels Terror Attack: Due to Western Ignorance of Evil Theological Systems – Part II

Brussels Terror Attack: Due to Western Ignorance of Evil Theological Systems – Part II

By Prof. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis

 

In an earlier article published under the title “Brussels Terror Attack: Due to Western Misperceptions – Part I” (https://megalommatiscomments.wordpress.com/2016/03/23/brussels-terror-attack-due-to-western-misperceptions-part-i/), I highlighted the Western ignorance of the Muslim World and more specifically of the fact that the extremist way of life, mindset and belief are approved and shared by many hundreds of millions of Muslims in countries other than the evil cradle of Salafism / Wahhabism, i.e. Saudi Arabia; I called that dimension of Western misperception of the Islamic World ‘sociopolitical’. In the present article, I will expand on the historical – theological dimension of the problem.

 

WESTERN MISPERCEPTION OF ISLAM – HISTORICAL / THEOLOGICAL DIMENSION

 

In fact, there is an even worse, overwhelming, and terrible deception imposed on all those in West who have no background in Islamic History, Islamic Philosophy, and Islamic Theology. It pertains to the use of the terms ‘Wahhabi’ and ‘Salafist’.

 

Several investigative analysts have already questioned a few important points, such the inextricable relationship between the Islamic terrorists’ ideology, i.e. Wahhabism, and Saudi Arabia’s official and totalitarian dogma, which is again Wahhabism.

 

It would look as if Saudi Arabia cultivated and exported the evilness of Wahhabism, and this is true indeed, but unfortunately, this conclusion covers only a tiny part of the problem. To understand the extent of the problem and why it does involve the greatest part of the Islamic World, one has to go back to History.

 

THEOLOGY vs. RELIGION

 

Meanwhile, one must manage to avoid traps that only help the terrorists continue their evildoing, because precisely these traps mislead the Western statesmen, military headquarters, academia, mass media, and public opinion in their evaluation of the present situation. The trap is that of accusing Islam itself as a religion of terror. Extensive historical research would easily and plainly prove the opposite, namely that the peak of the Islamic Civilization (and all the thousands of historically known Muslim polymaths, philosophers, erudite scholars, scientists, poets, artists, historians, authors, etc.) was totally devoid of any inclination toward violence, let alone terrorism.

 

Where does this trap hinge on?

 

The answer is simple; there is a subtle and yet enormous difference between two words that play here a determinant role: ‘Religion’ and ‘Theology’. All the religions – when systematized as dogma, doctrine and cult – are, usually, essentially transformed into theological systems that can be at times identified as very distant from the original religion.

 

Christianity offers many examples in this regard; the word ‘Trinity’ does not exist in the New Testament. Early Christians practiced Christianity without conceptualizing what later became the Trinity dogma of Christianity. It is only after St. Basil, Bishop of Caesarea of Cappadocia, wrote his lengthy theological treatise On the Holy Spirit (374 CE), which was accepted as doctrinal pillar of Christianity, that 4th century Christians were able at last to contextualize the third person of their religion.

 

Similar situations occurred in Islam, a religion that is based on one holy book, the Quran, and prophetic explanations and narratives usually called ‘traditions’ (Hadith in Arabic) that determine not only the aspects of spiritual life and human morality but also the details of socioeconomic life. In this regard, theological systematization and recorded application of the Islamic Jurisprudence ended up to an interminable typolatry (“the worship of the types of the religion”) very similar to what Jesus accused the Pharisees of (“Ye blind guides, which strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel.”; Matthew 23:24). This attitude was proven unable to hinder the free development of Philosophy, Letters, Arts, Sciences, and Spirituality in the first six – seven centuries of the Islamic Era, but when the Islamic Civilization collapsed, typolatry prevailed overwhelmingly bringing forth putrefaction.

 

THREE THEOLOGICAL LAYERS THAT COMPOSE TODAY’S ISLAM

 

If you go to the Wikipedia, you will read that the terms Salafi and Wahhabi are almost synonymous and that Wahhabi means the follower of Muhammad Ibn Abdulwahhab (18th c.); they are categorized as Sunni, even by people like Karen Armstrong, but this is very, very false.

1. Muhammad Ibn Abduwahhab adhered to the evil theological system of Ahmed ibn Taimiya (13-14th c.). Today’s Salafists or Wahhabis adhere to that system too.

2. Ahmed ibn Taimiya adhered to the evil theological-jurisprudential system of Ahmed ibn Hanbal (8-9th c.).

3. Now, Ahmed ibn Hanbal is – today – considered as the founder of one of the so-called four (4) schools of Islamic Sunni Jurisprudence (Fiqh – you have to pronounce both, -q and -h).

All the sheikhs and all the muftis of Islam will tell you today that the four schools of Sunni Jurisprudence are: Hanafi, Maliki, Shaffi’i, and Hanbali – all terms are established after the names of several theologians (in chronological order: Abu Hanifa, Malik ibn Anas, Al-Shafi‘i, ibn Hanbal) who lived in the 8th and the 9th c. Indicatively: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiqh

This is a shameful lie.

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Certainly, in terms of present sociopolitical conditions, one can find followers of each of the above systems. If one consults existing maps closely, one will soon notice that Hanbalis are to be found – only – in Saudi Arabia!

The critical point, which is today concealed by both, the Muslim sheikhs or muftis and the politically correct Western academia, is that the Hanbalis were never truly accepted as genuine Muslims, civilized humans, and people of good faith by any Muslim in the 8-12th c., which was the peak of Islamic Civilization.

At those days, not one Islamic philosopher, erudite scholar, spiritual mystic, scientist, theologian, polymath, architect, artist or poet ever accepted Ahmed ibn Hanbal as an educated person, let alone as an accredited scholar and theologian. The true fact is that he was imprisoned as a barbaric and dangerous heretic and as an ignorant person, who would spread evilness and darkness among Muslims.

His followers were very few, vulgar, miserable, marginal, and disorderly elements. Across the (already then) vast Islamic World, the only location where they were accepted was the most uneducated, most uncivil, and most worthless part of the Islamic territories, namely the Arabian desert (they were not accepted then even in the Hedjaz, the Cordillera that spans from the South of today’s Jordan to the North of Yemen, i.e. where Mecca and Medina are located). One has to bear also in mind the fact that the Hedjaz, although important from a religious viewpoint (as a holy place where the Prophet of Islam lived), has never been in the Islamic Ages a recommended place for Letters, Sciences, Arts, Philosophy, and Imperial Prestige.

Ahmed ibn Taimiya lived outside Arabia and was a Hanbali, and as such he was imprisoned for felony, heresy, and barbarism. When he was free, in his speeches, he used to admonish his followers to attack personally all the Islamic philosophers, scientists, artists, architects, authors, poets and erudite scholars, because they all had absolute contempt and disdain for him, and his ignorance. Ibn Battuta, the illustrious traveler and author of Islamic Ages, describes that the villainous ibn Taimiya exhorted his followers to attack physically the followers of important Islamic philosophical systems who verbally disagreed with the nonsensical and immoral words that he used to utter. This behaviour prevailed among his followers after he died.

Taking into consideration that Ahmed ibn Taimiya was a Hanbali and that Hanbalis were an illegal group (and not an established and accepted school of Islamic Jurisprudence) at the time, one may ask how Ahmed ibn Taimiya managed to influence people in areas like Damascus where there were no Hanbali at all.

Ahmed ibn Taimiya was the ugly and perverse child of his time. During his life, the last Crusaders were kicked out of the Orient. However, the shock they had created was extremely negative and uniquely tremendous among Muslims, Christians, and Jews of the Orient. It was also the time when the epicenter of the Islamic Civilization, Baghdad, was destroyed by the Mongols. This generated a very negative attitude and aggravated introversion, which was at the antipodes of what the Islamic World had been for six centuries before the Crusades.

 

(to be continued)