Tag Archives: Nubians

About the Islamic Veil and the related False Dilemma & World Deception

From my last year’s correspondence with a London-based African Muslim Lady

 

Parts

I – About today’s Fake World

II – About today’s Prevailing Materialism and Total Lack of Spirituality

III – About the Global, Full, Deception

IV – About the Islamic Veil (Hejab)

V – About today’s desecrated, fake mosques

VI – Reminiscences from the war front between Iran and Iraq

 

Dear XXXX,

This letter will displease you – greatly! 

You may even consider me as a brutal and heartless person; and perhaps I am to some extent.

But if don’t tell you what I intend to, I will certainly be held as liar by God.

So, I definitely prefer that you view me as a heartless and brutal person than Allah holds me responsible for deliberately concealing reality and truth from you. 

The critical part comes at the end, but before that I will answer to your email.

Воскресенье, 10 апреля 2016, 22:03 +02:00 от xxxxxxx

 

Dear Prof S

 

Your Somali friend is right about it being on social media. It was sent bymy sibling who was sent the video (not link) via Facebook.

 

I – About today’s Fake World

 

I am afraid that, in a society mainly characterized by an extraordinary imposition of total deception and delusion, you have to be extremely attentive in order to avoid falling into the numerous traps that Freemasons and Zionists incessantly set up for the rest of the world and for one another – so, some of these traps are very sophisticated, because they are addressed against people who know the reality of the world 1000000 times better than you and others do.  

There is another show discussing this issue: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mIhTtbqkMNM


My goodness! This is a YT channel that does not show the number of its subscribers – probably because they are few. If you even check the views received on all of the channel’s views, you realize that they are between 2 and 3 million – only! This is next to nothing in the world of YT.

 

To give you an idea, my friend, who uploads many of many articles as videos (www.youtube.com/user/peiraiotis56) is a single person, not an entire community, and he is at the level of 5.3 million!

So, when you have this sort of YT channels set up by communities of Somalis, Oromos, Baluch, and any other, you have corruption. If someone pays US$ 50000 to any of them, asking for intriguing compromises that will not be easily discerned by many, they will cash the filthy, cursed money immediately.

Do not be criminally naive to believe that others are as good as you are or that they have a label “crook” on their front.

You only daydream and you do so self-calamitously, if you think that people, who suffered, lost their property, saw their relatives dead, and were persecuted, have still the strength to say ‘no’ to some little money, which is enough to buy them and thus turn them from ‘good’ to ‘evil’ – particularly if they live in the West and specifically in the US, the world’s most execrable materialistic tyranny.

The outright majority of all the Somalis, the Oromos, the Ogadenis and all the rest are bought up in profane manner and very often without them even understanding it. Things happen at times in a very subtle and concealed manner; the bribe is not always addressed to the concerned person but to wives, brothers, sisters, sons, daughters, friends or associates. They do the rest of the job. So, to imagine that there is a difference in evilness between George Soros and one of the aforementioned is either a tragic mistake or mental self-amputation. 

 

Unfortunately, the Somalis love to view political speeches of worthless people than look into real issues.


No, this is common to all. In a so-called ‘global’ society (the term is very fallacious by the way), all are affected. Except the privileged few who have the courage to incessantly and indiscriminately reject whatever comes from today’s world.

And this is the cataclysmic difference:
– any Somali in Minnesota belongs to ‘today’s world’, and
– any Somali in a remote village in Somalia, a person whose house has no electricity and whose family has no money, does NOT belong to ‘today’s world’ – but most probably he/she does not understand this reality, because to him/her ‘today’s world’ is virtually unknown.

I have attached the translation.


Thank you for your effort! 

Estakhfor Allah! You are an adult! You could understand the language; there are explicit indications of forgery. I will reveal them separately. You could understand them. 

You are right worse things are happening. My sister in law told me of poor people in Egypt who are taken off the street and falsely treated well (e.g. given bath, new clothes etc. and then taken somewhere to be harvested for their organs). Of course, we have also discussed the atrocities carried out by the Freemasons.


Yes, but I see that this was not enough.

 

II – About today’s Prevailing Materialism and Total Lack of Spirituality

The Somali community knows about this issue, since it has been discussed and rumored for many years. I think I mentioned a friend of my father who is now an old man, who finally disclosed to my father that on his voyage to the UK women were raped in front of him in Libya and he could do nothing. This was at the time of Qaddafi – imagine it must be 200% worse now.


With this and with all the aforementioned, you still fail to understand what the truly “worse things” (that have been and are still being carried out in this world) are.

As a matter of fact, your thought, mind, reactions, mindset, and attitude reveal – quite unfortunately – a consummate materialist whose concerns are limited within the material realm and focused on whether this person was unjustly slaughtered, the other person was secretively raped, the third person was illegally sold as slave, and another person was gravely injured and thus submitted to extreme (material) pain.

In whatever comes to your mind, there is nothing called ‘soul’, nothing related to the Spiritual Universe, nothing pertaining to the origin and the center of our existence – the Spiritual Order. Any person, who proceeds in your manner, successfully manages to keep him/herself far from the real essence of the problem; then, magnifying secondary aspects, that person fails to understand the origin of the problem and thus automatically becomes part of the problem. This tells me that, when the problem will be resolved, this person will vanish in the eternal fire that transforms the Being into the Non-being.

The foremost atrocity undertaken against the Mankind of our times is the disconnection of the material part of every human (i.e. the body and the mind) from his/her spiritual part, e.g. a tragic event due to which the complete fall of the mankind has been achieved in a way that today we are able to identify it with textual references to the world of Al Yom al Ahar (the End Times).

The persons, who were raped, tortured, amputated, killed and dishonored in any sense, had already been spiritually dead; before their exposure to the atrocities that so much fascinate you, they had been disconnected from their souls, they knew nothing about what their soul is, where it is, how it feels, what it does or can do, how they can reconnect with it, by what other spiritual beings their souls are surrounded, impacted, helped or endangered, what our destination in life is, to what extent our tasks and responsibilities hinge on our souls and on our re-connection with them, what other spiritual beings exist in the Spiritual Universe, how they are manifested in the material world, and – above all (which is what the filthy Satanic sheikhs of today’s cursed pseudo-Islam ignore) – what the price of our disconnection from our souls is.

This atrocity is zillions of times worse than the materialistic pictures and videos that you have provided me with and also zillions of times worse than your narratives about the execrable lives of unfortunate women, who happened to be relatives of any type to pseudo-Muslims whose character happens to be more barbaric than that of the wildest pig.

Not only the atrocity of the spiritual disconnection of the men is worse, more critical, more tragic, and more ominous than all the material atrocities of all times counted together, but it is the reason for them. In fact, it is the only real and irrevocable death of the humans. What you think as death, i.e. the separation of the soul from the body, is not death.

That’s why today’s soldiers fail to fight like the illustrious fighters who followed the Greatest African of the 19th and the 20th centuries, Mohammed Abdullah Hassan.

– Oh, if I were lucky enough to ride a horse, run behind him, and get engaged in one of his battles, even for only one minute, I would not need to live anymore in this world!

That’s why today’s politicians and statesmen fail to get the slightest portion of the magistrates and the officers who followed the Most Illustrious African of all times, Emperor Ahmed ibn Ibrahim in his epic battles against the Satanic Abyssinian cholera. No one can achieve today to emit from his face the light that dispersed the incestuous and evil Amhara and brought the armies of Somalia up to the sources of the Nile. Those were the fighters, who fearlessly crossed the most abominable and cursed part of the surface of the Earth, an arid and mountainous land that afflicts with evilness anyone who happens to cross or live in it – a territory that Allah will eliminate soon from the surface of the Earth and will return it to its place, i.e. the Nether World.

– Oh, if I were lucky enough to ride a horse, run behind him, and get engaged in one of his battles, even for only one second, this would be the greatest favor I can ask God.

Your thoughts, concerns and endeavors, as long as they are materialistic of purpose, have unfortunately only one result: they turn you into a part of the problem – a morally conscious part of the problem, but still part of the problem.

Yours is also a grave ignorance of the History of the Mankind. Similar situations (with the atrocities attested in the documents that you sent me) existed in many places and most of the times. Freemasons, Jesuits and Zionists used – for a period covering many millennia – to customarily kill children, women and men in ritualistic ceremonies offered in honor of fake deities that were all personifications of Satan.

Useless to add that they also used the organs of their victims and sacrifices in their ritualistic ceremonies! Only today’s ignorance and barbarism drives people into total darkness; an Ancient Egyptian and an Ancient Somali before 3500 years knew very well the different types of use – either blessed and positive or cursed and negative – that each organ of the human body can have. Similar details are abundant in the supreme texts of the Golden Era of Islam.

 

These texts are far more important than the currently useless Quran and the presently worthless Hadith that you cannot understand – except in the light of the texts that I insinuate and which you never read, because you don’t know. Yet, these texts are unknown to the uneducated, illiterate, trashy sheikhs and imams of today’s Islam. So barbaric, idiotic and pathetic they are that, if they come to know about these texts, they will immediately attempt to discredit them, because they will feel the danger that these leading texts of Supreme Human Wisdom herald a) their most demanded death and b) the disastrous end of today’s religious prostitution that is called ‘Islam’.

Only today’s worthless Mankind that cares about football, dance, night life, cars, races, sports in stadiums, free time in malls, sex, porno-videos, cinemas, expensive clothes, electrical appliances, luxurious properties, advanced technology in gadgets and mobiles, lavish vacations, etc. does not know that in Ancient Egypt, when they carried out the mummification process – and this was the matter for every deceased person -, they removed the organs, they did not throw them away, but separately placed them inside differently prepared vases that are called by today’s Egyptologists canopic vases.

Read now this basic reference https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canopic_jar

Look at what the Ancient Egyptians (and the Ancient Sudanese – and I have reason to believe that also the Ancient Somalis) did, while scrupulously working to complete a mummification process! In fact, the human body is the Supreme Architecture delivered by Allah. In and by itself, it constitutes a miniature of the Universe.

Of course, if one is stupid enough (like most of today’s fake Muslims) to believe that Einstein was an intelligent and well-educated professor (and not a vicious gangster, a repugnant criminal, and a filthy, profane liar aiming at besotting you personally and everyone else as well) or to think that the Earth is a Globe that revolves around the Sun, one will never achieve to get a small portion of the magnificence of the Ancient Intellect, which was far closer to the Eternal Truth than the decayed world in which you find yourself.

 

The article that your friend sent is also very revealing of the dire situation of all illegal African immigrants. It is ridiculous that they escape to Europe when the wealth of the world is dependent on the natural resources of Africa which has every precious gem and material on earth.


Very right indeed! I am glad to notice that you identified this critical point. It is quite telling.

 

III – About the Global, Full, Deception

You know I have nieces, and the video really upset me since under different circumstances that could easily have been us which reminds us of our responsibility to end this practice. 

 

Of course, we are human and feel sorrow for those who have been persecuted or abused, but Allah also granted us intellect, and we must think properly, correctly and creatively, and thus avoid being deceived.

 

You know, I have not finished the e-book you sent me a long while ago on ritual abuse. I know I must read it but I am not spiritually strong to go through it yet and I am concerned I will have many nightmares for quite some time.

 

Of course, you have to read Frabato, and complete the reading. Give it a priority! Later, I will suggest you further readings from Franz Bardon. 

I will read the descriptions of Egypt articles you sent me tomorrow. I read your articles (via the update you provided on your work uploading all those documents and videos). The one on the Brussels bombing was very precise and to the point and underscored the key elements of the issues we face. Of course, there is more detail, but for an absolute beginner the areas to focus on were very clear (1) Hanbal, (2) Taimiyah and (3) Abdulwahab and (4) introversion and (5) reductionism.

 

In all three cases of names, please do not forget the word ‘ibn’ before the names that you mention. Without it, the names are wrong, although most Muslims will understand you.

 

You know my sister told me of a Somali girl who appeared on Somali TV without a hijab, who was discussing the real problem of young Somalis being lured into gangs in Toronto. The comments focused on her not wearing a hijab rather than the real issue affecting he children of the people posting those ignorant comments.

 

Pathetic! In all cases, contents matter more than form! Typical case of reductionism – which is a most evil and inhuman ideology and behavioral system!

If a woman is raised to a level of respectability and nobility, hijab is meaningless.

This said, I must add that the issue is risky, because there are many traps in it; however, the traps are not inherent to the subject, but due to the external involvement and the unprecedented maneuvering and manipulation that took place in this regard.

 

In fact, the outright majority of those men, who demand of a woman today to wear hejab, are filthy criminal gangsters, infidel trash, ignorant and uneducated idiots, e.g. all those who bring forth the total destruction of Islam in a precipitated rhythm.

As I told you, the effectiveness of today’s world deception hinges mostly on the establishment of false debates or false dilemmas in every single case and issue. You must always have this in mind. It is the indispensable, structurally Satanic, element of the Zionist, Jesuit and Freemasonic lies and propaganda. 

 

Why is it ‘structurally Satanic’? Because Satan’s rebellion against God, as documented in any major literature and religion, particularly the ancient Oriental religions of the world’s greatest civilizations, was in itself a ‘false dilemma’! Of course, it was a dilemma first presented to himself and then to the spiritual hierarchies that he drew to precipitated fall. Useless to add that a false dilemma is the most sophisticated manner of rejection of Truth!

If the dilemma is ‘A or B’, and A is truly A and B is truly B, then those setting the dilemma in front you (Jesuits, Freemasons, Zionists, etc.) will have only a small chance to draw to their side the majority and to thus achieve their goal as per this subject / issue. If they manage to get it done in one case, it will take them too long and it will consume too much of energy. Last, it will not be sure that it will be achieved in the next subject / issue.

If now the dilemma is ‘A or B’, and A is truly A but B is misrepresented and, although you consider / see it as B, in reality it is -B or C, the chances of the deceivers to get it done (and cheat you) are stronger, because this is in real terms a confusion and not a dilemma. Nonetheless, with this situation, we have not yet reached the level of ‘false dilemma’ properly speaking.

However, if the dilemma is ‘A or B’, and A is in reality -A or Z and B is in reality -B or Y, then you most probably are lost and the deceivers will easily achieve their goal. This is now called ‘full deception’ (an accomplished false dilemma) and to oppose this, you need exceptional intellect, vast knowledge, moral integrity, and spiritual intuition. Few exceptional persons can outmaneuver this fabrication.

 

This is the nature of our world in almost every issue. 

 

IV – About the Islamic Veil (Hejab)

Back to hejab now! Ancient Assyrian and Egyptian, Sumerian and Hittite, Phoenician, Aramaean and Hebrew, Iranian, Greek, Indian, Chinese and Roman women wore either always or under different social circumstances various types of hejab. In pre-Biblical Antiquity, we know that the use of hejab was more widely spread in collapsed societies whereby pan-sexualism and pan-sexuality, immorality and perversion, corruption and materialism had already increased tremendously.

 

In later ages, Christian women wore hejab; Jewish, Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist, Confucian women did so too.

My grandmothers were both Christian Orthodox and they both wore forms of traditional Christian hejab covering most of their hair. This occurred as recently as the 1930s and the 1960s. To their viewpoint, an uncovered woman wearing a bathing suit and exposing her mostly uncovered body to the general public in the coasts and the beaches was certainly a ‘prostitute’ – perhaps not a professional prostitute but a viciously immoral trash.

 

Back in the 1950s and 1960s, perfidious distortions and pathetic lies were already systematically propagated without anyone opposing them; swimming would supposedly be very good for the health, sunbath would eventually guarantee longevity, etc., etc., etc. All these silly and nonsensical activities, which had never before been practiced within the context of any civilization, are cancerogenic indeed, and – which is even worse – absolutely calamitous for the spiritual and the physical health of the human being.

 

Then, the Christian Church was already corrupted from inside, having been infiltrated by Freemasons and Zionists (though to lesser extent than now), and only few marginal priests, who were low in the hierarchy, dared to oppose the scheme. As you can easily guess, they were easily discredited by the monstrous and criminal forgers.

As a matter of fact, only modernism crushed the Christian hejab, and this ominous development was quite recent.

Look now! Up to a certain point, the colonies (Egypt, Somalia, India, Cambodia, etc.) followed the colonial metropolises. This was very evident in the 1960s. Independent Somalia meant also uncovered women – not because there was a sociopolitical movement and activists promoting this policy, but because gradually under the Italians, the French and the English, the Somali society advanced on the path of early modernism.

And here comes the ominous false dilemma – on this subject.

Of course, the rejection the Christian (and Jewish) hejab in the West was not a one-step / one-stage movement. As a matter of fact, this rejection did not consist in an innocent concept. At the time, it was certainly marketed as a symbol of carefree life, as an acquisition of postwar peace and freedom, and as an indication of aesthetic concern; but you have to view all this literature as a sophisticated marketing campaign whereby the most atrocious was smoothly, gradually and systematically presented as quasi-divine.

 

From the moment of making the first step in the effort to remove the Christian hejab until the time one woman appeared ‘topless’ in the beach and nudist beaches started being organized in Freemasonry-/Zionism-controlled tyrannies of the West, many decades have passed. For the same scope, every few years, another immoral, paranoid, and worthless ‘innovation’ was being heralded; and everything was planned carefully and from the beginning, long before being executed in a multileveled effort involving art (cinema, TV, video, music), mass media, and other tools of corruption. The end target was what you see now in the West and what you will see in ten years’ time: profanation of the human body, pan-sexism, homosexual marriages, pedophilia, and incest. This is the first part of the false dilemma. Unveiled woman is here finally a consummate prostitute.

The second part of the false dilemma is the internal development that took place in the fake Muslim societies over the past five – six decades; if the Freemasons and the Zionists wanted it, the same evolution would take place in all the Muslim countries. But for different reasons, Freemasons and Zionists did not want it so. Consequently, they started promoting other situations and supporting different developments. By agreeing that civilized Egyptians, Sudanese, Somalis and other African Muslims go to the Hell of Satanic Arabia to …. “study Islam” (which was tantamount to an abomination), the evil colonial powers ensured that

 a) every remnant of civilization gradually but steadfastly disappears from every Muslim country and

 b) every remnant of Islamic faith gets progressively replaced by the filthy, Satanic theology which was prevailing in Saudi Arabia, i.e. the anti-Islamic, evil and inhuman pseudo-theories of Ibn Hanbal, Ibn Taimiya, and Ibn Abulwahhab.

 

At the same time, and for many successive decades, systematically the Freemasons, the Zionists, the Americans, the Europeans and others took great pain to show, through the world’s mass media that they controlled, a totally false image of the reality, misinterpreting the moderate political stance of Saudi Arabia, which however formed a tandem with the barbaric, backward, terrorist, extremist, radical and overall inhuman, religious education which was imposed across the Satanic realm in a most tyrannical manner and diffused to all the countries of Islam through the foreign ‘students’, who used to go to Barbaric, Satanic Arabia to get barbarized in the cruelest possible manner.

 

Like this, as second part of the false dilemma comes not the historical hejab (which existed often though not always across the Islamic World over the past 14 centuries), but the fake hejab of the successive reductionist evil dogmas of Ibn Hanbal – Ibn Taimiya – Abdulwahhab. This is, truly speaking, the anti-Islamic hejab of Barbarism, e.g. the foremost symbol of Women’s Slavery that the outright majority of the Satanic sheikhs, imams, muftis and qadis support.

 

For the imminent clash not to be averted, the vicious, Satanic Freemasons and Zionists deliberately accept as ‘Islamic’ the veil, whereas in reality

a) the veil has not been Islamic but Universal (it existed in almost all the ancient civilizations, as well as in the Hebrew Religion and in Christianity) and 

b) the veil never consisted in a rigid obligation of Muslim women – once (as I said in the beginning) a woman is raised to a level of respectability and nobility within the context of her civilized society.

 

And this is the truth of my words that the vicious mass media have always made a great effort to conceal; I will offer one example, but there are numerous.

 

Before exactly 179-178 years, the Scottish painter David Roberts traveled down the Nile up to the borders of Sudan and immortalized scenes of the places where he passed by. Here you can get general information about him: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Roberts_(painter)

He went as far as Abu Simbel at a time the great temples of Ramses II and his wife Nefertari were not excavated, but were still sunk in the desert sand (as they had been during most of the Late Antiquity already). David Roberts left impressive drawings of the location. In addition, he depicted many Nubian men and women from diverse places south of Aswan and up to the Sudanese border (few kilometers beyond Abu Simbel), i.e. Qertassi (Kardasy), Korti, Wadi as Sebua, etc.  

NubianWomenatKorti_ontheNile_zps42eaf934.jpg

Nubian women at Korti – by David Roberts. 1838-1839

Wady Kardassy.jpg

Nubian men and women at Qertassy (Kardassy) – by David Roberts. 1838-1839

DavidRoberts-AbyssinianSlavesAtKorti_1838.jpg 

Abyssinian slaves at Korti – by David Roberts. 1838-1839

david-roberts-dancing-girls-of-cairo-1408246545_org.jpg

Dancing girls in Cairo – by David Roberts. 1838-1839

See for yourself how much ‘uncovered’ or how much ‘covered’ these decent, moral, innocent, clean and impeccable Nubian women were. They were living far from the Satanic sheikhs of Wahhabism, and – thank God! – the filthy, villainous and inhuman teachings of the vicious heretics Ibn Hanbal and Ibn Taimiya had not yet reached their noble land.

 

To the Ottoman Caliphate, their region was a rather marginal circumference, and among the Nubians at the time, only a minimal impact was exercised by the vicious colonial slaves, i.e. the uneducated sheikhs of the worthless, fake Al Azhar mosque of 1840. The vicious, fake sheikhs of 1840 Al Azhar idiotically adjusted their trashy theology to the political orders of the time. They consciously served the villainous, dirty, criminal, anti-Islamic and anti-Egyptian needs of the profane, servile political class of vice-royal – khedival Egypt that was a Satanic tool of the Anglo-French Freemasonry and the Khazarian Zionists against the Ottoman Empire – Islamic Caliphate, and therefore against Islam in its entirety. The fake sheikhs of 1840 Al Azhar were at the very antipodes of the true, authentic sheikhs of the Ottoman times’ Al Azhar whom Napoleon’s puppet Muhammad Ali had earlier (in the early 1800s) executed in a monstrous crime that represents one of the darkest pages of Islamic History (which is of course concealed in most of the books by the Freemasonic-Zionist censorship).

 

Back now to David Roberts’ paintings! In fact, they never caused a doubt about their veracity – except for the case of his drawing of the sunset behind the Sphinx of Gizah, which has of course has artistic compromises. David Roberts’ great Nubian ladies of Qertassi, Korti and other locations did not indulge in materialism, consumerism, and liberalism. They were authentic humans and genuine Muslims, like millions of other African and Asiatic women of those days, who, living in hot climate zones, did not need to wear the silly, strict hejab of the barbaric and idiotic theologians, the likes of Ibn Taimiya and Ibn Abdulwahhab.

 

And this concludes the case of the nature, function, usefulness or uselessness of the Islamic veil.

 

The aforementioned is enough to demonstrate what a truthful Muslim woman must do today: it will however be a difficult task, but there is not going to be anything easy in our days.

 

Speaking to Westerners, a truthful Muslim woman today has to castigate – through acts and words – their present attitude, highlighting the fact that the Westerners dishonor their own ancestors and traditions. Only if the West returns to Christianity, the West will be saved.

 

Under no circumstances has the West to accept today’s filthy, trashy, evil, Satanic pseudo-Islam, which in reality is the other side of the Freemasonic-Zionist coin of our modern(-ist) times in the aforementioned evil dilemma.

 

Self-rectification is therefore needed for both, Christians and Muslims (when limiting the discussion to only these two religions). Their tasks are indeed parallel; the Christians must discover their lost Christianity and the Muslims must seek and find their lost Islam. The tasks are separate, so an immense program must be set up as to just how the entire Muslim populations of Europe will be gradually evacuated and relocated back to their respective countries of origin.

 

And then, addressing the Muslims, a truthful Muslim woman today has to castigate – through acts and words – their present attitude, underscoring the fact that their barbarism, ignorance, and materialism dishonor the Islamic Faith and Heritage because Ignorance in Islam is tantamount to Intellectual and Spiritual Prostitution.

 

Quite unfortunately, the undeniable truth is that today’s average Muslim woman’s lack of education, ignorance, insistence on ‘strict hejab’, and submissiveness to men of their societies (which is by itself an execrable sin), if compared to the great role played by Muslim women in the formation and the development of the Islamic Civilization, makes of the strict hejab a Satanic device and an excellent tool in rendering all Muslim women useless, worthless and evil. This ends up as a sheer promotion of homosexuality, pedophilia and incest within today’s fake Muslim societies of decayed Islam.

 

At the very practical level, this imposes on today’s truthful Muslim women a very difficult path; wearing a non-strict hejab, making their veil evidently lenient, offering an emollient outlook and a propitiatory appearance to the public, a Muslim woman must make today a remarkable achievement that hinges on Aesthetics, Morality, Intellect, and Intelligence.

 

In fact, there cannot be anything moral in Islam that is at the same time ugly. Ugliness is an expression of Evilness. And every strict hejab is utterly and disgustingly ugly. This attitude for a Muslim woman today is tantamount to standing on the blade’s edge. Unfortunately, this is the only free space left today, but it is the only indicated by the Truth and dictated by the Faith.

 

At this point, I have to also offer a practical example; it concerns a great and brave lady, a leading personality of the Islamic World that dwarfs the ignorant, uneducated, uncultured, and therefore useless sheikhs of Al Azhar, Mecca, Madina, Jerusalem, etc. She was a splendid stateswoman, who paid with her life her unique courage and her unshakable intention to firmly state the truth – and not the idiotically considered as politically correct lies of the execrable political microcosm of our days. She had the courage to say in public that Osama bin Laden was assassinated in the last months of 2001, and she said this quite early, when the world was inundated with fake videos prepared by the Mossad and the CIA that the idiots of this world – and all the profane, Satanic governments of the Muslim countries – believed for more than a decade!

 

This great lady offered a perfect example to all Muslim women and in general to all the women of the world: the assassinated Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto!

 

(Read the following article that I published in less than 48 hours after her assassination – the following link is a republication: https://www.academia.edu/24418253/Who_is_Responsible_for_Benazir_Bhuttos_Assassination_-_By_Prof._Muhammad_Shamsaddin_Megalommatis)

 

Certainly, today’s truthful Muslim women have to defend the perfect right of every Muslim woman who wants to be fully uncovered, warning her at the same time that materialism is inhuman and acceptance of Western modernity, technology, and consumerism is not only a sin for a Muslim but also a real spiritual death for any human.

 

On the other hand, today’s truthful Muslim women have to permanently reject the vicious, anti-Islamic and totally Satanic imposition of the totally un-Islamic strict veil, denounce as worthless and valueless trash the filthy, hypocritical prostitutes who wear it, and call for the formation of Civilized Islamic groups that will systematically fight and irrevocably demolish Saudi, Wahhabi and Hanbali Islam in the most determinant manner and with the rules that these groups will find best, rejecting all previously existing Sharia-related laws of any country as evidently inapt to face the Darkness and the Barbarism in today’s decayed, fake Islam.

 

A last point about the hejab: if you search for the textual references, you will automatically realize that the hejab is recommended strictly and exclusively to women with menstruation. An 8-year old child and a 53-year old woman (and all the older) must NOT wear any hejab at all. Those who wear it commit certainly a sin, because they are hypocrites and want to show to the others that they conform to the rule! That’s silly. Those who care about the opinion of the other members of the society are Satanists. One must care about ONLY the opinion of God concerning him-/herself.

 

Allah gave us a brain but if we do not want to use it that is a fault on our part. Too quick to judge, ignorant and proud and impoverished and divided and ill-willed!

 

Right! You have got it very right! Reductionism turns humans to primal, visceral animals.

 

This is the situation of the Somali community at least that I have seen in the UK.

 

It is general all over the world – an indication of irrevocable decadence.

 

Of course, you have those that act selfishly and, when I find such people, I hang on to them like precious rubies. If I volunteered and tried to help expecting thanks, I would be dead by now. More often I have faced envy from the people I have sought to help, and this is when I can sense the ill-will. 

 

“Why did this have to be me and not you”, “why do I have to beg you for help”: these are very key questions that can be read on their faces despite the expressions of gratitude.  

 

You are right; this attitude is due to lack of education and lack of culture or – to put it otherwise – because of the disintegration of the traditional culture of these people. Again, this is general.

 

I remember Allah, and how He has allowed me to focus on what is important, which is within my knowledge (principally fighting the social services to return the children, if the mother has done nothing wrong or to have them placed with a reliable relative / community member, so that they do not lose their identity and religion).

 

May Allah reward you for this work! –  ! جزاكم الله خيرا

 

You know, Prof S., it is difficult to stay positive, and then I remember our Prophet has informed us the only one, who should despair, is Satan.

 

This is a great truth, but people are usually weak in the time of distress; and this process quite unfortunately weakens them even more!

 

I am put off from going to the mosque now in order to avoid the hateful stares of the ignorant masses that know nothing about me and imagine themselves to be better because they wear an Abaya or Niqab, and I have chosen to wear trousers or jeans.

 

V – About today’s desecrated, fake mosques

 

You lose nothing! The reason for this is the fact that almost the quasi-totality of today’s mosques, particularly in major urban centers (be they in the West or in the Muslim countries), have turned out to be desecrated locations whereby the evilness of the fake worshippers invites all sorts of demons and evil spirits that disastrously impact on the souls of the fake Muslims. Those materialistic idiots gather there ignoring the fact that wherever egoism, arrogance, material interests, negation of the truth, hatred, jealousy, rage, concern for financial profit, and other similar attitudes are expressed, the location immediately becomes spiritually contaminated, being thus rendered completely worthless. A negative person brings always a plethora of negative spiritual beings with him/her.

 

The silly sheikhs and imams, who teach their unfortunate followers that you can pray next to a hateful and earlier enraged villain and still remain spiritually intact (!), are filthy liars and foremost Satanists, who work for the propagation of evilness within Islam. As per the materialistic, nonsensical and absurd beliefs of these false sheikhs, the humans are nothing more than pathetic robots whose prayers comprise of just some meaningless utterances and of few repetitive movements. Quite contrarily, we know that Allah did not create trashy robots, but thinking individuals able to ensure full communication between their soul and body.

 

These fake Muslims and criminal sheikhs must be assassinated on the spur of the moment; in any case, their spiritual punishment at the very bottom of the Hell is ferocious. This is due to the fact that, by calling Muslims to pray in desecrated, Satanic mosques, these Satanic sheikhs incessantly and massively perform spiritual assassinations. This is how the Evil spread across the Muslim World. Every mosque desecrated by fake believers, who are full of negative attitudes is a cursed location emanating negativity, demoniacal vibrations, and catastrophic electromagnetic waves that permeate the ignorant idiots, who frequent the ominous building and are thus turned to sinners and disbelievers.

 

I myself take great pain in finding mosques proper enough for praying. Compared to you, I have the great advantage that I live in a country which in the past belonged to Dar al Islam (this notion simply does not exist anymore), and I can therefore find old mosques that are not so much frequented by people today. There, you can feel the positive vibrations of great, faithful people who were spiritually alive and truly communicated with their souls, with the spiritual universe, and with God. In Cairo, I prefer Ibn Tulun Mosque, to cite an example. Equally positive are small mosques in poor, remote villages whereby the inhabitants are mere farmers with few material interests, with disregard for the money, and with distrust toward the evil, Western, modern technology and way of life. Distance from today’s urban centers is priority no 1 for any true Muslim and any true believer of any religion.

 

For you, who live in a city of a non-Muslim country whereby so much hatred and rage are expressed by the fake Muslims – all those who care only about material benefits and goods and have a total disregard for, and ignorance of, their souls – the best solution is to pray at home.

 

God forbid what they would do, if I was not wearing a hijab (probably attack and maul me). When I think of those hateful people, I think of reductionism.

 

You are right; reductionism is the supreme stage of Satanism, because it consists in direct negation of the Creation, and of the Universes (spiritual and material). When you don’t comprehend the Entire Universes, when you fail to realize the magnitude of forms of Faith, when you don’t primarily care about how you will manage to comprehend the Universes and their interconnection, and when you fail to see your entire life as an ongoing exam in Morality, Knowledge, Judgment, Discipline and Wisdom, you end up limiting your mind in few simple tasks, duties, thoughts and practices. This is a direct, aggressive insult of Allah – either you understand it or not. This is what most of today’s ignorant, faithless, fake Muslims do systematically with their daily lives. Their punishment will therefore be unprecedented.

 

In a mosque, a Muslim woman must wear a hejab – even in the way I described earlier. In this, their attitude is similar to that of Christian women, who also wore a veil inside a church in the past, which is still a tradition for queens and noble ladies today.

 

This sticks out to me, because eventually there is only compulsion, because you become intolerant of difference (everyone must look the same, move the same, breath the same, and eventually they must die the same).

 

You are right! There is no compulsion in religion (Al Baqara, 256) – Supreme Rule of Islam.

 

The situation that you describe is an explicit uniformism, which is an appendix to reductionism, while it also reflects the evil Western geological – cosmological theory of Uniformitarianism, which is a sheer postulation, and yet it is still accepted by all sorts of evolutionists. Yet, Abraham Gottlob Werner with his Neptunism was closer to the truth than his opponents, the Plutonists who were the early Uniformitarians.

 

Whatever goes to the direction that you denounce is sheer Satanism. The plurality of forms is inherent to Being, and the uniformity of forms is intrinsic to Non-Being. You need Mohyieldin Ibn Arabi to understand these concepts as elaborated within Islam.

 

I think, I told you my brother said he could not listen to a speech of a young woman I knew speaking about the plight of the Palestinians, because she was not wearing a hijab and yet he believes he is going closer to his ‘Deen’, because he goes to ‘Islamic’ lectures and classes.

 

!! You make me laugh at!!

 

I know, it will take some time, which is made difficult with my indoctrination through the British education system, but I want to be free in my thoughts, free and distant of such ignorant people, spiritually strong and connected with my heritage, and at the service of Allah to help do justice and alleviate the suffering of His Creation. This is what I focus on now, and I am truly grateful to you for your time and effort in assisting me.

 

Thank you! More distance you take from all forms of decayed thoughts and beliefs, farther all these pernicious forms of thought will look to you. You will finally see – so I hope at least – that between a) the modern English evolutionist education and b) the Wahhabi – Ibn Taimiya – Hanbali Islamist doctrines, which are taught in today’s fallacious, Satanic medresas, there is no difference. They both are in fact one doctrine and they both follow the same, archetypal opposition to Creation and to God as expressed by Satan.

 

But it will be only after many years and numerous efforts that you will finally reach the accurate understanding of the world and of the concealed reality. You will then realize quite well what is truly at stake in our days, i.e. an issue that goes back to the times before the Creation.

 

As always wishing you the best

XXXXXX

 

However, your progress will be hindered, and serious obstacles will appear in your path, if you fail to control yourself and stay intact, phlegmatic and terribly cold in front of any possible atrocity that you may come across. This is not a joke! It is a very serious problem. And this is the point that I made at the very beginning of this long email, anticipating that it will displease you.

 

In front of any external, material adversity, it is imperative for any person aspiring to higher understanding, wisdom, intellectual potency, and spiritual forcefulness to withhold all of his / her feelings. Certainly, all humans have their moments of weakness and they would not be humans otherwise.

 

My previous sentence in itself offers you an opportunity of double reading; as a matter of fact, it also implies that non-humans do not have this sentimental weakness, and there are actually non-humans on this world – and not only among the elites.

 

If it takes you 50 years to put your feelings under iron mastership, you will have lost your life, the armies of Evil will have conquered the world, and you will be held responsible for being unable to contribute to a successful aversion of the danger.

 

VI – Reminiscences from the war front between Iran and Iraq

 

I was in your age, when I covered – as war front reporter and journalist – Iranian attacks against Iraq either against Sulaymaniyah (in the area of Iraqi ‘Kurdistan’) or in the invasion of Fao, across the river that the Iranians call Arvand and the Iraqis Shatt al Arab, which is formed by the merge of Euphrates (Al Furat) with Tigris (Dijleh / Dicle), thus becoming their common estuary in the Persian Gulf.

 

In the former expedition, we were inside Iraq within hours after the Iranian attack against the sizable Iraqi city of Sulaymaniyah had taken place; we first flied to Sanandaj, and from there we proceeded to Baneh by helicopter – at times of absolute Iraqi supremacy in the skies! We had signed a paper for this in Tehran prior to the first flight, taking full personal responsibility for our integrity and life. From Baneh, we continued with military jeeps inside Iraqi territory.

 

We reached at a distance of 2 km (bird’s eye) from the Northeastern suburbs of Sulaymaniyah or – to put it otherwise – we were behind the mountain that surrounds the Sorani (‘Kurdish’) Iraqi city from the east. We were on the next mountain in the east (on the mountain’s western slopes), and there was a narrow valley between the two mountains. The Iraqis had withdrawn their forces and emptied the valley, but they were on the opposite mountain (on its eastern slopes), and they were in a position to watch our movements and shoot us, as we visited formerly Iraqi military outposts that Iranian soldiers had attacked and occupied earlier in the morning, let’s say five hours before our arrival. The attack was such that many Iraqi soldiers were killed, and as you can imagine, the dead bodies were not buried by the time we arrived.

 

Blood was spilled all over the place, and the spectacle of the corpses was far worse than the material that you sent me by email, due to explosions that caused the dismemberment of some of Iraqi soldiers’ bodies. Other soldiers were killed by just bullets. The overall sight was the Hell on Earth. We were few journalists; I don’t remember how many, but certainly less than 6 or 7; Iranian military officers were in charge of us. We had received early morning telephone calls at the very time of the attack, and those, who accepted the offer, had only half an hour to get ready, until a separate car would pick up each one of us to drive us to a military airport in Tehran from where we took off immediately. After one hour of flight (or even less), in Sanandaj airport, we walked only few meters from the airplane to the helicopter. It took another 20-25 minutes until we landed in Baneh, at the spot where the jeep drivers were awaiting us.

 

In the outposts with the dead bodies, next to me was the director of Tanjug (Yugoslavian News Agency), a very nice guy (named Zorz Crmaric) whose friendship I really miss, because we did not contact one another after the early 90s, when his country split in a most spectacular way (as you know), and I moved from Germany and Iran to Russia, Turkey and Egypt. When I was in Iran, he constantly invited me to his villa, because he needed my academic background in Iranology and, when I was speaking, he used to take notes ceaselessly. In addition, I had already traveled to far more places in Iran than he had (and not just major cities but remote villages and uninhabited mountains with archaeological sites off the beaten track), and I was a trustworthy source at the journalistic level as well. I was not Muslim at the time, but Iran was a land that brought me very close to Islam and I used to attend seminars conducted in Farsi by Ayatullah Alameh Yahya Noori, a pacifist and a humanist.  

 

As soon as my Serbian friend saw the dismembered corpses, he became pale and started trembling. I was exactly 30, because this story dates back in 1986. Zorz was slightly older than me, he was married, he had two children, and he was trembling like a 10-year old girl! I stopped working and taking pictures or notes, and instead of talking with the Iranian soldiers and officers in my elementary Farsi, I tried to support, strengthen and re-consolidate that poor guy. Soon two Iraqi military airplanes appeared shelling around us; we tried to hide behind the trunks of trees, so open that mountainous slope was. The two Iraqi military airplanes were shelling at a distance, and thank God they did not drop bombs! We were exactly underneath!! Finally, we returned by jeep to Sanandaj, in order to avoid the helicopter for security reasons, and late in the night, we flied back to Tehran safely.

 

The story left me with a conclusion: when you cannot avert the evildoing, you must have at least the courage to see it face to face, being frozen, calm and steadfast.

 

I never regretted for my conclusion. Now, it is not 1986 but 2016. The sun has set and the little light still left will soon disappear. Your attitude will only kill you and this can happen very soon. You have to train yourself as soon as possible in order to eliminate this weak side of character. You must force yourself to become courageous and resolute, able to face adversity, and capable to support others in adversity. This is your caliber; I would not say this to all the women whom I know, but I say it to you, because it suits your fundamental standards. You can be stronger than most of the men of this world, if you try. The predisposition is inside you, and this already means that you have to follow the path opened to you by Allah. You have been sent with a purpose here, and I am confident of what I am telling you now. Escaping from your role will not bring any recompense, believe me!

 

If you want my advice as to just how to overcome this weakness of your youth, I will say that you need to open the Wikipedia and start watching pictures of entries about serious contaminations and diseases. Some of them are so harmful that those affected would really be willing to take the position of the children of your pictures – wherever these pictures may have been taken.

 

If you want I can send you this terribly unpleasant material but, you know, you will have to study closely the awful pictures of people affected by bubonic plague, yellow fever, typhoid, and cholera to see what truly exists on this world.

 

If you fail in this, you only justify those fanatic Wahhabis saying that women are only for the kitchen. The choice is yours.

 

A last point! The most unpleasant one! You seem to daydream about this world, and this must take an irreversible end as soon as possible – for your sake alone. Have you thought for instance how wonderful it was for these little angels to be out of this murky, filthy and disgusting world and what service their killers offered them – without knowing it? Or is it that we only live here, at the material level, and there is nothing afterwards – as per the instructions of the Zionists?

 

I truly confess to you that, in just few years, most of the people in this world will envy the destiny of these young children-angels. Numerous will then find other persons’ tombs and will go to stand out and call them to get out so that the living ones go inside. Do never judge before the complete end of a story!

 

Far from all these fake Muslims, spiritually present more than ever, Prophet Muhammad prayed for these lucky souls, who had the privilege not to know the poisonous truth of our miserable lives. This is the reality.

 

Best regards,

Shamsaddin

Iranian Qajar dynasty Art Gallery (mainly 18th – 19th c.)

Qajar tile, Persia, 19th century.jpg

A Large Qajar tile, Persia, 19th century

Of rectangular form moulded and painted in under-glaze cobalt blue, pink, turquoise and brown, outlined in black with a prince and attendant on horseback visiting a courtesan, set amidst a leafy glade with fish pond and palace in the background, with a border of birds and floral scrolls
39.5 by 52cm.

Khusraw_Discovers_Shirin_Bathing,_From_Pictorial_Cycle_of_Eight_Poetic_Subjects,_mid_18th_century.jpg

Khusraw discovers Shirin bathing 

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d76899852b9913e51c64710e9277e9b6--couple-painting-painting-art.jpg

ca0eee67968e53c839a1c6443b086b67--qajar-dynasty-art-museum.jpg

c6397461c36c2b85b5569d2ee1455695--qajar-dynasty-persian-carpet.jpg

Boy_Holding_a_Falcon,_Qajar_Dynasty_(18th_century).jpg

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amorous couple.jpg

ac425cd580661cb829868b4362a0f5d1--qajar-dynasty-iranian-art.jpg

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69f0fa947299133c9bc7a13ef6859a62--qajar-dynasty-islamic-art.jpg

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036a28e97a610c52da9acd0b6856c745--qajar-dynasty-tambourine.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Sudan & Algeria will soon disappear in an Arab Spring 2.0 – Why not?

Dear All,

Here you have few comments about the defective nature of structures that only conventionally are called ‘modern nations’ or ‘modern states’; these structures will soon collapse and these realms will follow the path of Somalia, Syria, Iraq, Yemen, etc. I expand on why these developments are inevitable. The motive for these comments was a video uploaded by a friend.

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Comments on the video about Bernard Lewis and the Arab Spring

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=REUYfdOi1qo

 

References made to Maxime Rodinson, the Laws of the Himyarites, and John Chrysostom’s Eight Speeches against the Jews

 

Some guys plan the elimination of several countries, and the countries disappear, vanishing into everlasting chaos.

 

After all, what is a country? 

Its minimum common multiplier.

 

Once you realize this, you don’t need to study anything more, except only to reconfirm the veracity of your conclusion. Knowing this for Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Sudan, and all the rest, including Israel, I can easily, safely and accurately anticipate the end of these structures.

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That’s why they cannot oppose the plans of Bernard Lewis whom I met once personally when in postgraduate studies in France. Among other professors’ seminars I attended two seminars of Maxime Rodinson, the friend of Jean Paul Sartre and the famous author of a book ‘Mahomet’ and of another ‘Islam et capitalisme’.
https://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/1968/03/FLORENNE/28292 
http://www.seuil.com/ouvrage/mahomet-maxime-rodinson/9782020220330 
https://www.contretemps.eu/discussion-sur-islam-capitalisme-maxime-rodinson/ 

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The seminars that I attended were on Pre-Islamic Yemen, Red Sea navigation and trade, Ancient Abyssinian History, and Abyssinian Language (Ge’ez). Rodinson was also the friend of Bernard Lewis, and once, when the latter visited Paris, he invited him in the seminar. 
 
However, as there are many Ancient Greek and Medieval Greek sources about the History of Pre-Islamic Yemen, I had personally the chance at those days to find how biased Maxime Rodinson was against valuable historical sources that refuted his fake Jewish, Ashkenazi identity and world view.

I could write a book about him; he liked me, but I did not reveal my back thoughts to him, because I already knew that he was a fake Jew and a Freemason. I learned much thanks to him, but I also spent time, after I left France, reexamining and reconsidering my notes, and rejecting many of his points and sayings.

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As you know, the Israelis consider these countries properly speaking as technical entities.

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The Israelis are very right indeed.

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From Morocco to Pakistan and from Uzbekistan to Mozambique: Technical Entities, not States, not Nations!

All the countries that were detached from the Ottoman Empire, Safevid Iran, and Mughal India are technical entities.

They are not proper states.

In 2014, I published an article that I wrote in a very simple manner so that all can read and understand, skipping the enormous amount of associated details that could help an entire team come up with an encyclopedia to duly and fully illuminate the topic.

It is available here:

https://www.academia.edu/26064731/Why_Former_Ottoman_Provinces_cannot_become_Proper_States_-_By_Prof._Muhammad_Shamsaddin_Megalommatis

This is in the section Leading Articles of my account in that site, so you understand that I highlight it to the rest.

I explain the phenomenon only in one dimension, the easier one, namely ‘state’.

If I wrote this article under a slightly different title, changing the word ‘states’ with the word ‘nations’, I would need three or four times the size of the article.

As long as they were subjects of the Ottoman Empire, they were something. The entire Muslim world was progressively collapsing after the 15th c., but they all had an identity.

Useless to state that they were not asked about their detachment from the Ottoman Empire; their independence is therefore totally illegal, and in addition, it is well known that the early generations tried to reverse the detachment/colonization.

What you have afterwards is the formation of the illegal, criminal colonial classes; these are the filthy trashy people, who either in Algeria or in Egypt or elsewhere were treacherous and docile enough to work with the colonial masters in order to extract material profit and obtain significant position professionally, socially and politically. To do so, they diffused chains of lies and enormous volumes of falsehood.

The indigenous populations were thus disconnected from the state that gave them their identity. Even worse for them, they cared too much for their material lives (which is evil) and they did not fight to death against the colonials; their rebellions were therefore gradually quenched. Last, the detached local people of the colonial lands progressively accepted the entire falsehood diffused by their miserable, trashy and fake elites – i.e. the execrable criminals who ‘ruled’ as local slaves of the locally present colonial masters and as real shoeshine boys of the criminal colonial states of France and England.

All this ends in the transformation of the human subjects of the Ottoman Empire into the nationless, History-deprived, culturally empty, baseless, and utterly useless monkeys of Egypt, Algeria, Yemen, Syria, Iraq, Uzbekistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria, etc., etc., etc.

These useless people, their futile and world-destructive existence, are the only obstacle that prevents Real Islam from appearing again as Human Civilization in the world and prevailing at last.

This is the reality: the Israelis must destroy all these countries to ….. bring Prophet Jesus and Mahdi closer!

The Zionists are blind and don’t see that what they try hard to achieve only brings their worst enemies to the forefront of the world politics.

The Freemasons are far smarter and more intelligent and they understand this; that’s why they try to make the Zionist plans fail and in the meantime they prepare their own Anti-Christ.

The Jesuits want to allow the two other organizations to self-ruin in their clash, so that they remain stronger at the end. What is too bad for all is that in their clash they annihilate parts of their plans and harm one another in irreversible manner. Before two months, I published this:
https://www.academia.edu/33381068/Zionist_-_Freemasonic_-_Jesuit_Agendas_in_Conflict_or_Superposition_End_Times_Sequence_and_Trajectories
It sheds light on what projects the three organizations intend to carry out in the next few years and how it all interacts.

So, all these monkeys of today’s Islam, who failed to either hit back and achieve the re-establishment of the Ottoman Empire or become proper nations and organize for themselves as pertinent and effective states, will now pay their disregard for their path with their unprecedented destruction, bloodshed, and disappearance. Although born as human, they did their best to insult God by becoming degraded, materialistic beings. This is an inexcusable sin.

The Laws of the Himyarites, Maxime Rodinson, & Today’s Biased, Fake Academic Establishment

To give you an example related with Bernard Lewis and Maxime Rodinson, I will only mention the Medieval Christian Greek text “Laws of the Himyarites” (in Greek: Νόμοι Ομηριτών). Search in Google and in brackets to see how many times you can find this 6th c. Greek text that details the Christianization of the North Yemenite state Himyar of Yemen, just few decades before and around the time of Prophet Muhammad’s birth!

Just 10 results!

Yet, this text has been published within a major, leading academic publication of the 19th c.! Plus, one Greek researcher prepared his thesis on this text in 1991. This means that an invisible hand wants this text to remain unknown to the entire world. Hhhhmmm!

Long before that Greek person prepared his very wrong PhD, I studied this text even before moving to France for postgraduate studies in 1978. Then, in Paris, every week, I attended ca. 70 hours of classes (during six working days), and of course among them I participated in the seminars by Maxime Rodinson.

At a certain point, in my second postgraduate year, we were discussing something in class, and I interfered saying that about this point, there was valuable information in the Laws of the Himyarites. Maxime Rodinson (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maxime_Rodinson) became pale and confused, spoke against that text as if the text ….. were a man who killed his father (!!!), all the other attendees (of whom none had read the text and some even did not know its existence – although the seminar was for exclusively postgraduate-doctoral level) were taken by surprise because of this inexplicable wrath against a …. text! Here you can see many pictures of Rodinson: https://www.google.ru/search?q=maxime+rodinson&num=100&newwindow=1&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwihzPKW7b7VAhXI2xoKHVd8DeAQ_AUIDCgD&biw=1053&bih=631#imgdii=xbnbx8bzvz5msM:&imgrc=yi2Zl0zVso2s4M: He has a certain face similarity with Bernard Lewis – both are Ashkenazi Khazarians.

I opposed him very strongly, because I remembered parts of the texts and I summarized them in French. He then tried to discredit the text, which -by the way- was written by the great Christian bishop Gregentius dispatched from Alexandria to Yemen (Himyar) to help expand Christianity there (No English wikipedia entry on this person; still there is an entry in the French wikipedia:

https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gr%C3%A9gence_de_Safar).

Rodinson had become as red as tomato in his face and asked me to either stop or go out of the seminar. I said that I did not need to speak more about it, and that I only mentioned it, because I thought it could shed light on the point we were discussing. I concluded that it is inevitable that many books about that text will be published to show its veracity and great value and kept silenced.

In the seminar, half of the attendees were French and the rest were foreigners; there were English, German, Abyssinian (Amhara), Yemenite, and few more participants from other countries. After the seminar ended, many came to me to ask me where they could find it and I told them about the leading publication where they could find it (Patrologia Graeca, ed. Migne); unfortunately, to most of them, this long series of volumes was useless. The monumental publication (more than 160 huge volumes in its totality / Gregentius’ text covers many pages in one volume) was easy to find in some specialized libraries, but it contained Christian Greek texts, so all the texts were in Greek. However, the great publication was a complete bilingual opus indeed; all Greek texts are translated in Latin, Modern Europe’s primary academic international language. But only few among my colleagues had strong knowledge of Latin to attempt to read the translation. I knew Latin but I did not need to go through it, since I could read the original Christian Greek text.

The affair ended there, and I never mentioned the text again. I had very friendly relations with Maxime Rodinson, and even I translated it for him a sizable part of an Ancient Greek text to French for him (although I had no obligation to do this and he was not member in any jury that would bestow upon me any title). I even dedicated to him one of my books (published in 1994), writing a very complimentary reference to his course. I attended his seminars from October 1978 until June 1981, and after that I moved to England, Belgium, Germany and the Middle East. But I kept a continuous contact with him, sent him many letters and photocopies of my articles, printouts of my academic publications, and my books. I also called him several times, before I moved to Turkey in 1994. Maxime Rodinson spoke, wrote, read and understood around 20 languages. He could read and understand Ancient & Christian Greek, but he wanted to be sure of some points and that’s why he asked me to offer him the service of benevolently translating that part of text.

So, what about the great text “Laws of Himyarites”?

Well, it details an extremely nauseating image of the Jewish rule over Yemen at the times of the Himyarite proselyte Jew King Dhu Nuwas. About this evil person there are many other sources, but they pale when compared to this text, which provides a full record of laws that are similar in their nature to post WW II Zionist inhuman legislation and legalized sin, viciousness, and Satanism.

In addition, the text includes the debate between Gregentius and a Himyarite Jew who faced a devastating defeat by the bishop.

This is the reason the world Jewry does not want this text respected, known, referred to, consulted, used as historical source, and thoroughly evaluated.

Yemenite Students Abroad: Fake Studies of Fake Citizens

Now, as I told you, there was a Yemenite student in Rodinson’s class; of course, he knew only Arabic, French and some English. This means that he was quasi-illiterate in an environment where every participant knew at least 5-10 languages.

That guy did not even speak Mahri or Socotri, which are Yemen’s true national languages, since Arabic is a foreign language and very different from Pre-Islamic Yemenite languages that were different in their own writing system of which Arabic is totally irrelevant. Mahri and Socotri are the real survivors of the Ancient Yemenite languages. After much time, I asked him what he did with that text (the Laws of the Himyarites) which he could not read either in Christian Greek or in Latin and of which no other modern translation was available. All that he answered was that since Maxime Rodinson said that the text was false and wrong, he would not further bother about it.

Then, I realized that his sloth and laziness was a sickness and a curse that would hit back at him and at his country. Indeed, he should be interested in the text more than I was, because the text, although written in Greek, detailed his own country’s past. But Rodinson’s words were a great excuse for him. This means that he preferred to rely on those who planned the destruction of his country than to reject his false Islam (which is the reason for his sloth and for his ignorance) and work hard to take his fate in his hands.

This situation was for me one of the early indications of what was about to come!

How could it be otherwise?

Ali Abdallah Saleh should have made of this text, the epitome of his foreign policy. And similarly, with other texts, other fake leaders who vanished or will vanish. You know what Qadhafi, Saddam Hussein, Khomeini, Mubarak, Buteflika, Zin al Abedin and others could have said publicly as arguments to strengthen their position and inform the world community? Thousands of impressive arguments with strong historical support and evidence. And what did they say? Empty words!

But when you have a gun and an enemy and you don’t use the gun, your enemy will eliminate you!

Common background and many divergences – Not One Elite

However, the common Ashkenazi background shared by Maxime Rodinson, the Freemason, and Bernard Lewis, the Zionist, did not prevent a great number of divergences; this is something that most of the people, political commentators, bloggers, analysts, academics, etc. fail to grasp; and yet, it plays a key role worldwide.

 

All these secret organizations (Jesuits, Freemasons and Zionists) – with their divisions, with their clashes and opposite plans that are in conflict with one another – fail indeed to achieve their targets and to implement their agendas.

Now, about my knowledge of these three organizations, this came progressively and bit after bit after bit. But I am well aware, and in details, of all of their plans and conspiracies, and I have analytically studied point by point the entirety of their falsification agendas in the academic fields that I have been focused on.

Here, I have to point out that the three terms that we use in reality are a very obscure generalization; there are Jesuits against Jesuits, Freemasons against Freemasons, Zionists against Zionists, there is evident cooperation with opponents, and all this happens at all levels from academic-scientific to economic-financial to ideological-political.

So, it is very wrong to think as many do (but I hope you don’t) that there is one worldwide elite, which implements unopposed its agenda; in fact, what we see at the level of world politics is the partly failure of all plans, the compromise among the different elites in conflict, and the ceaseless rescheduling of all the agendas.

 

Have you heard about the preparations for an extra Zionist state in

a) Ukraine (this is by now canceled due to Putin’s invasion of Crimea where they wanted to establish it),

b) Kenya-South Somalia-Uganda-South Sudan, and even

c) Argentine’s Patagonia?

Now, comparing the divergent positions of Maxime Rodinson and Bernard Lewis, one has to go through an enormous bibliography and crosscheck real data; this helps any researcher make sense.

Maxime Rodinson for instance was an Ashkenazi Khazarian who became Freemason. That’s why he was an agnostic, communist (against Khrushchev’s USSR – so this automatically says that Khrushchev was anti-Freemason and anti-Zionist / and similarly for all other cases), but supported a 2-state solution in Palestine. So, he was opposed to Zionist plans providing for one state solution and for Greater Israel (as per Bernard Lewis).

Proceeding in this manner with respect to either my professors or most of the great Orientalists of the last two centuries, I came to understand what were across History the persons, the ideas, the principles, the philosophical systems, the states, the artistic currents (and so on) that the Freemasons, the Jesuits and the Zionists liked (and lauded) or disliked (and discredited or concealed). This does not happen only in politics but in History, History of Religions, Philosophy, Literature, etc.

There are plenty of cases of historical texts duly published that have been concealed or ‘buried’, because of the interests of the above forces; not only the Laws of the Himyarites. What they mostly want about them is to keep them in their original, ancient language that very few individuals learn in the few specialized seminars that exist across the world. Then, those who learn this ancient language, have most probably followed seminars of a Freemason, a Zionist or a Jesuit professor and therefore they have been taught to disregard what disturbs these forces.

One point that I understood very well about the clashes of those powers is that they do occur and at times they are ferocious, but they always happen within a wider ‘modus vivendi’ and they don’t go beyond the limits of a coexistence. The French have a nice description of this sort of fight and class; they call it “le bocal à grenouilles”! You know, when you put some frogs inside a big bottle or jar, they start jumping one upon the other but to no avail.

The World’s Most Important Text in 2017: John Chrysostom’s Speeches against the Jews


Another critically important text that the Freemasons and particularly the Zionist Jews hate is the great summation of John Chrysostom’s speeches against the Jews.

John Chrysostom along with Basil the Great, bishop of Caesarea (Kayseri), is one of the two greatest Fathers of the Christian Church; he mainly lived in the 2nd half of the 4th c. and in the beginning of the 5th c. of the Christian Era.

John Chrysostom wrote more than any other known person in the History of the Mankind. His texts can be found in the 19th c. voluminous publication Patrologia Graeca.

 

{Published by Jacques Paul Migne as continuation of the Patrologia Latina, Patrologia Graeca is a monumental edition that encompasses all Greek Christian texts. Migne’s celebrated publications triggered also the launching of Patrologia Orientalis for Syriac Aramaic, Coptic, Armenian, Georgian, Abyssinian-Ge’ez texts) and Slavonic texts.

 

Migne was much hated by Freemasons and Ashkenazi Zionists alike; these villainous forces burnt his printing house and mobilized the Archbishop of Paris, a Freemason, to stop Migne’s cataclysmic publications that consisted in a straightforward rejection of Modern Literature, Philosophy, and politics as purposeless and deviate. The total war waged against Migne, who is one of the top five most erudite scholars of the last five centuries, involved also an unholy alliance between the Freemasons and the Jesuits! In fact, a great deal was stricken with the Jesuits, who sold Migne for a dish of lentils, and consented that the Freemason Pope Pius IX (1848-1878 / more: http://freemasonry.bcy.ca/biography/pius_ix/freemason.html) issues a particular decree to condemn the use of Mass stipends to purchase books, which effectively called out Migne and his publications.

 

The Spanish wikipedia offers an acceptable and objective entry about Migne; the Russian entry is also good. The rest show the determination of evil forces to conceal vital information about the great scholar and his unique publications:

https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Paul_Migne

https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%B8%D0%BD%D1%8C,_%D0%96%D0%B0%D0%BA_%D0%9F%D0%BE%D0%BB%D1%8C

https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Paul_Migne

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Paul_Migne https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques-Paul_Migne

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Paul_Migne

 

Patrologia Graeca is an enormous amount of 166 huge volumes in small characters and all texts included are available in Greek (original text) and in Latin translation. The Laws of the Himyarites, as written by Gregentius bishop of Himyar, are included but although they make a sizable modern volume, they cover only a small part of a volume in Patrologia Graeca}.

John Chrysostom’s preserved works alone cover …… 18 volumes (more than 10% of the entire voluminous edition)!! Other Fathers of the Christian Church with monumental works preserved in manuscripts do not exceed 4 or 6 volumes of Patrologia Graeca; so you can get a comparative idea.

John Chrysostom’s Eight Speeches (homilies) against the Jews is the world’s most devastating rejection of the cursed race. No other hand in World History managed to write a so detrimental denunciation of the Satanic nature of Jews. These eight speeches against the Jews can become a vital guideline for all the nations of the world in order to cast this race away; with an enlightening introduction and a comprehensive commentary they may make a great book. This possibility enrages both, the Zionists and the Freemasons to great extent.

John Chrysostom’s Eight Speeches can be found in modern English translation here:

http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/index.htm (under John Chrysostom); the portal has posted only few of his works, but thank God they included all eight speeches against the Jews.

Present day Jewry didn’t stop conspiring against this Great Father of the Christian Church who studied their evil nature meticulously. Here’s how:

Open a Google web page! Write “John Chrysostom against the j” and don’t continue! See what suggestion comes automatically from the software! It is …… not ‘against the Jews’ but !!!! ‘against the Judaizers’ !!! This terms means ‘early Christians of non Jewish origin who had in their Christian rites some Jewish traditions’. The Judaizers or Judaizing Christians existed and John Chrysostom wrote against them, but he mainly wrote against the Jews, and this is in Christian Greek the title of his 8 speeches. This is just to show to you a minutious software point related to this subject; due to this detail, you can get an image of how deep the worldwide action of the Zionists is and up to what level of details they think of and they systematically act in order to eliminate what they want to hide from the rest forever. And of course, if this happens for a major historical source, which is part of the Christian Patristic Literature, you can guess that similar attitude and action are displayed and carried out in every single other point.

Look at what happens when an important academic institution, like Fordham University, launches a huge portal to make already published ancient texts and sources available online, and in the process, it happens to normally include the Eight Homilies of John Chrysostom.

The infamous Jews react against the publication, calling names, and characterizing John Chrysostom an ‘Anti-Semite’ (what a laugh!); then, the university authorities feel obliged to open a new web page about the reactions!

http://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/halsall/source/chrysostom-jews6-react.asp

Now, under any normal circumstances, these texts should have become the cornerstone of the formation of all modern nations that happened to have problems with the evil and villainous realm of Israel, namely the Syrians, the Lebanese, the Palestinians, the Iraqis, the Iranians, the Turks, the Pakistanis, the Egyptians, the Libyans, the Sudanese, and all the rest. These texts should have been translated in the local languages and become central in those countries’ educational systems (along with many other texts by other authors in other languages). Did this happen?

No!

So, all these fake, ignorant, idiotic and useless realms will disappear one after the other. There will not be any ‘recovery’ for Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan, Yemen, Somalia, South Sudan (what a joke of country!!), and Libya. Simply other useless realms will follow in this path. This is what they deserve!

Best regards,

Shamsaddin

 

What Egypt needs now – Part II. An Existential Threat must be Thwarted

By Prof. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis

In an earlier article titled ‘What Egypt needs now – Part I, Sinai’, I suggested a series of measures that the Egyptian government must take immediately to make sure that civil order and concord will prevail in the area and nationwide. These measures are expected to thwart an existential threat against Egypt’s national integrity. The existing threat is very real and the dangers tremendous. In the present article, I will reveal covert insinuations made by a key Israeli minister, proceeding through textual analysis. These hints do not augur well for Egypt’s territorial integrity and must therefore be taken very seriously.

When Supreme Forces are pushing to Change Borders….

The first reactions of the Egyptian government seem good, but very limited, short-termed, and rather atrophic. Egypt must be out of the process of Israeli-Palestinian negotiations; this is true and correct for all intents and purposes. One can even say that there was no need for such carnage so that finally an Egyptian government understands that the country’s position is in Africa and not in Asia, and that any sort of involvement in Palestinian, Levantine or Asiatic troubles does not bode well for Egypt’s interests, perspectives and future.

Establishing a buffer zone is certainly a good measure, but it will bring only minimal results; the last bomb explosion was a false flag attack, and the criminal Zionist state is the only to be held responsible for this. Any sound mind can assess this reality immediately. As irrevocable conclusion, it is even corroborated by the texts and the articles of the Zionist press – if they are attentively read and scrupulously interpreted.

For the Egyptian government, accusing Hamas for the tragic incident has only one useful dimension, namely to deceive the Israelis by pretending that the Egyptian government does not believe that the responsible was ultimately the Zionist state. This dimension would certainly make sense.

However, for any Egyptian authority to truly believe that it was carried out by a Hamas unit in cooperation with local elements is tantamount to suicide. The reason for this is the fact that it was not Hamas, but Israel, and this will be proved correct, because the measures taken, if they are not accompanied by must greater and more systematic measures (like those suggested in my previous article) will fail to prevent similar incidents in the future.

Worse, if the measures I suggested in my earlier article (https://megalommatis.wordpress.com/2014/10/26/what-egypt-needs-now-part-i-sinai/) are not taken as soon as possible, Israel will take the destabilizing game deep inside Egypt, and similar tragic incidents will be reproduced in the greater Cairo area and in Upper Egypt. The reason for this is very simple; Israel has already established a highly sophisticated network of agents across the country (without most of them even knowing that they are working for the Zionist state) and, in addition, has stored in many locations across the Sinai Peninsula material that is necessary for the false flag attacks that the Mossad intends to carry out across Egypt.

It takes only a deep understanding of the Language of Falsehood (which is as real as English, Arabic, Russian and any other linguistic entity) in order to interpret correctly the Zionist ministers’, generals’, academics’ and journalists’ speeches and thus understand that Egypt is directed targeted now.

A brilliant example is offered by the filthy pig Moshe Ya’alon – who should be mercilessly lynched and literarily dismembered alive for scores of Crimes against the Mankind. The Israeli minister of Military Affairs said in a recent interview with the US-based National Public Radio (NPR) that the current borders of many Middle Eastern countries are bound to change in the future as a result of recent developments in the region.

He then went on offering his paranoid logic about the development and specifying the following: “Libya was a new creation, a Western creation as a result of World War I. Syria, Iraq, the same — artificial nation-states — and what we see now is a collapse of this Western idea,” he stated. Feeling the need to best cover his intentions, he also added the following: “We have to distinguish between countries like Egypt, with their history. Egypt will stay Egypt”.

For someone so well prepared to be the top gangster of the criminal Zionist entity (the Fake State of Israel), i.e. the minister of Military Affairs, Modern Political History is a perfectly well studied subject, and to him all the events are known in foremost accuracy.

On this occasion, a shrewd commentator expressed a great part of irony as regards Moshe Ya’alon’s interview, epitomizing the truth as per below:

“The minister did not say whether the borders of Israel, also drawn by Western powers after World War I, would change or not ” (http://www.veteranstoday.com/2014/10/24/middle-east-borders-bound-to-change-israel-minister/).

Moshe Ya’alon (born Smilansky – of Ukrainian father) fought as a reservist in the Yom Kippur war (1973) and “on October 15, 1973, his unit became the first IDF unit to cross the Suez Canal into Egypt. He continued fighting as part of the Israeli drive into the Egyptian mainland, and participated in the encirclement of the Egyptian Third Army” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moshe_Ya%27alon).

And this is Neo-Nazi gangster Ya’alon’s latest racist measure and policy:

http://www.darkgovernment.com/news/segregated-bussing-plan-for-palestinians-and-jews/

What did the Smilansky Ashkenazi Khazarian pig really say in his interview?

First, what are the ‘recent developments’ due to which borders will change across the region as per Ya’alon words? One might suggest that he refers to what happens currently in Iraq and Syria with the emergence of the Fake Caliphate. But no, this is wrong. The inner structure of his thought makes it clear that he includes Libya into this subject (‘the recent developments’); so we can safely claim that to him ‘recent developments’ is a code term for what is rather called across the global mass media as ‘Arab Spring’. So, we conclude that, when he says that ‘the recent developments’ will bring about ‘changes of borders’, Moshe Ya’alon includes Egypt, since the country was deeply affected by the Arab Spring covert operations.

But the gangster minister said much more in his interview, fully demonstrating that he views the country of the Nile as a candidate for the forthcoming border changes; in any case, ‘many’ countries are subject to this perspective, according to Ya’alon’s words.

Allusions are highly revered literary schemes in the Language of Falsehood that Zionists and Freemasons speak without the rest being able to decipher their covert messages and hints. Do you have a doubt that Moshe Ya’alon, except from being a Zionist, is also a Freemason? The picture published in the aforementioned entry of the Wikipedia (which certainly has his approval and definitely incorporates his recommendations) shows him with his Canadian and English counterparts, Rob Nicholson and Chuck Hagel, in a typically Freemasonic gesture of shaking hands (picture retrieved as of today).

Yaalon Nicholson Hagel

What is the allusion embedded in Ya’alon aforementioned interview?

He said: “Libya was a new creation, a Western creation as a result of World War I”. This is of course wrong! Totally wrong! Libya was detached from the Ottoman Empire by Italy during their 1911 war, which occurred 3 years before WW I started.

Now, if you believe that Moshe Ya’alon simply made a mistake or did not know what he was talking about, you are an idiot, and you should immediately stop reading the present text, because it will be worthless to you.

So, Libya was not ‘a Western creation as a result of World War I’.

This means that when Ya’alon continued saying ‘Syria, Iraq, the same — artificial nation-states — and …’, he already knew very well that Syria and Iraq were not detached from the Ottoman Empire in the ‘same’ way as Libya. Why did he make then this mistake?

A first approach may be for any interpreter and analyst to think that the Israeli minister wanted to insinuate that Libya’s borders will change pretty much like those of Syria and Iraq, which have already de facto changed due to the emergence of the Fake Caliphate.

But if this were his intention, Ya’alon would stop there. As he did not, and went on involving other countries as well, we can be sure that Libya was not the point he wanted to make.

So, in fact, establishing a wrong parallel between Libya and Syria-Iraq was not a proper mistake for Ya’alon, but it served him as an allusion.

– To what did Libya serve him as an allusion?

– Evidently to what Ya’alon would never say explicitly.

– How can we identify the object of his allusion?

– By searching for further elements in his interview namely countries that are possible candidates for border change; in this regard, Syria and Iraq are automatically excluded, because the change has already occurred in their cases.

– What further element is left in Ya’alon’s interview?

– Egypt.

However, in his interview, Ya’alon makes about Egypt an interesting juxtaposition; he says: ‘we have to distinguish between countries like Egypt, with their history. Egypt will stay Egypt’.

This appears to be in contrast with what was previously said about Syria, Iraq and Libya, namely that

  1. they are ‘artificial nation-states’, and
  2. in their case we see now ‘a collapse of this Western idea’.

The top rule of the Falsehood Language is ‘never to say the truth in public’; the second rule is the same said reversely, namely ‘to always say a lie in public’.

The fact that what Ya’alon says about Egypt in his interview is a lie we can understand through close examination of his words that reveal plenty of inconsistencies and inaccuracies.

What are “countries like Egypt, with their history”?

If this was said comparatively to Libya only, it would perhaps draw some importance. Libya was never the heartland of huge empires, important kingdoms or expanding caliphates. However, when countries like Syria and Iraq are involved in the discourse, the statement becomes meaningless and worthless, futile, erroneous, and therefore suspicious. Syria and Iraq have a greater historical past than Egypt.

A brief historical comparison involves the following:

1- the earlier beginning of civilization and writing in Mesopotamia – Sumer (around 300 years before Egypt),

2- the greater political – military expansion and cultural radiation of Mesopotamia – Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia (covering more than two millennia),

3- the equal importance of both lands at the times of the Seleucid and Ptolemaic empires (Alexander’s Epigones),

4- the equal importance of the two respective theological schools (Antioch in Roman Syrian and Alexandria in Roman Egypt) within Christianity, and last

5- the far greater role for Syria and Iraq within the context of Islamic History (Damascus and Baghdad were far more influential than Cairo in any aspect).

Finally, both territories (Syria – Iraq & Egypt) became part of the Ottoman Empire at the same time (early 16th c.) and were detached in the same manner (colonial, Anglo-French detachment).

We can therefore conclude that this is totally false, and when said by a top Israeli military, it consists only in a useful lie.

The same concerns for the term used for Syria, Iraq and Libya, namely ‘a new creation’ and ‘artificial nation-states’. In fact, Libya and Egypt were fabricated in exactly the same manner: colonial interference and detachment from the Islamic Caliphate – Ottoman Empire whereto both lands belonged.

In fact, if there is a contrast among the four countries mentioned by the Israeli minister, i.e. Libya, Egypt, Syria and Iraq, we have on one side Egypt and Libya (detached during direct foreign, colonial interference / pretty much like Algeria, Tunisia, Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti, Morocco, Aden, Oman, Emirates) and on the other side Syria and Iraq (invaded and occupied during WW I as consequence of the fact that the Ottoman Empire and England were members of opposite alliances / pretty much like Lebanon, Palestine, ‘Jordan’, Arabia, Yemen, Kuwait and Qatar).

If Libya is ‘a new creation’ (1911), so is Egypt (1798) too.

If Libya, Syria, and Iraq are ‘artificial nation-states’, so is Egypt too.

One may eventually hypothesize that the Israeli minister referred to the different ethnic-religious groups attested in the case of Syria and Iraq (Sunni, Shia, ‘Kurds’, Turkmen, Aramaeans, Yazidis and others). However, this is not attested in Libya whereby homogeneity is greater (there are only Berber-speaking and Arabic-speaking Libyans), and yet the Israeli minister categorized Libya with Syria and Iraq.

One understands how intriguing the Israeli minister can become, if one takes into consideration that ethnic-religious groups exist in Egypt as well, namely Berbers in the West, Bedouins in the Sinai (systemically called ‘Arabs’ by the Zionist state – and this is both false and fallacious), Nubians and Beja in the South, and in addition, Christians (erroneously called Copts – in fact, all Egyptians are Copts), Sunni and Shia Muslims.

So, if so many elements of Minister Ya’alon’s interview are false, what did he want to say?

The answer is simple.

It is all about an allusion that he wanted to make.

First, he made it clear that the Zionist state and the forces that support it want a definite change of borders in the Middle East. This does not concern Syria and Iraq anymore, because there border change has already occurred. In addition, Minister Ya’alon did not limit his discourse to only that area where he could eventually specify details (about ‘Kurdistan’, etc.) without however referring to other countries.

Second, he used Libya as an allusion to many aspects that characterize Egypt in the way the Zionist state views the country of the Nile (: new creation, Western creation, artificial nation-state, collapse of the underlying Western idea).

Third, he denied the truth that is hidden in the backside of his mind, by excluding Egypt from the picture. In fact, no one asked Minister Ya’alon to exclude Egypt from the picture. He could have just avoided any mention. He could have mentioned Yemen, Arabia or other countries instead, but in this case he would have not conveyed the message he wanted to convey to his Freemasonic and Zionist audiences across the Earth.

This automatically suggests that, if we want to understand him clearly, we have to conclude that he basically referred to Egypt as the next target for border change.

However, it would be a mistake to imagine that the rogue gangster who impersonates Israel’s Minister of Military Affairs is the only person to use this terminology and these figures of speech in order to convey similar messages. The Israeli is press and mass media in general are full of examples of similar insinuations and hints – on daily basis.

For their criminal interests and genocidal plans, it is only normal that they do their best to confuse the picture and mislead the Egyptian authorities. The Sinai Peninsula has become an urgent affair for the Zionist state. This is at least what the recent articles of professional liars and forgers like Elhanan Miller and Avi Issacharoff reconfirm (http://www.timesofisrael.com/egypt-suspends-hamas-israel-talks-following-sinai-attack/?utm_source=The+Times+of+Israel+Daily+Edition&utm_campaign=6b82096a7c-2014_10_26&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_adb46cec92-6b82096a7c-54783545 and http://www.timesofisrael.com/the-woes-of-an-egyptian-churchill/?utm_source=The+Times+of+Israel+Daily+Edition&utm_campaign=6b82096a7c-2014_10_26&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_adb46cec92-6b82096a7c-54783545).

It is therefore high time for the Egyptian administration to take all measures needed in order to totally block the Zionist infiltrators and agents out of the Sinai, and thus preserve the country’s territorial integrity.

The Meroitic Ethiopian Origins of the Modern Oromo Nation

The Meroitic Ethiopian Origins of the Modern Oromo Nation

By Prof. Dr. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis  

First published in: http://www.americanchronicle.com/articl … leID=21760  

Subsequently published in: Oromo Studies Association, 2005 Conference Proceedings, Washington D.C., 2005, 10p

Online mention: http://oromostudies.org/Proceedings/OSA.Proceeding.2005.pdf

The present text has been slightly edited.

 

This paper deals, among others, with the development of Meroitic studies, the Meroitic civilization, the destruction of the city of Meroe, the dispersal of the Meroitic people after the collapse of their state, the Christianization of the post Meroitic states in Ethiopia (i.e. Northern Sudan / it is to be reminded that the modern state of Abyssinia is fallaciously, illegally and criminally rebaptized ‘Ethioipia’), the migration of the remnants of the Meroitic people in the direction of the Blue Nile, and their possible relation of ancestry with the modern Cushitic language speaking Oromo nation. It must be stated clearly at the outset that the issue of Meroitic ancestry of the Oromo nation has not yet been considered, much less published in an academic journal or scholarly books. The paper was first presented in an academic conference organized by the Oromo Studies Association. Footnotes have been added in view of the aforementioned publication (see Pdf). 

1. The Development of the Meroitic Studies, the History of Kush and Meroe, and the Efforts to Decipher the Meroitic Writing  

Interest in what was Ethiopia for the Ancient Greeks and Romans, i.e. the Northern territory of present day Sudan from Khartoum to the Egyptian border *1, led to the gradual development of the modern discipline of the Humanities that long stood in the shadow of Egyptology: the Meroitic Studies.  

Considerable advances had been made in academic research and knowledge as the result of the exploratory trips of the Prussian pioneering Egyptologist Richard Lepsius *2 (1842 – 1844) that bestowed upon modern scholarship the voluminous ‘Denkmaeler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien’ (Monuments from Egypt and Ethiopia), and as the direct consequence of the series of excavations undertaken by E. A. Wallis Budge *3 and John Garstang *4 at Meroe (modern Bagrawiyah) in the first years of the twentieth century, by Francis Llewellyn Griffith *5 at Kawa (ancient Gematon, near modern Dongola, 1929 – 1931), by Fritz Hintze *6 at Musawwarat es Sufra, by Jean Leclant *7 at Sulb (Soleb), Sadinga (Sedeinga), and Djebel Barkal (ancient Napata, modern Karima) in the 1950s and the 1960s, by D. Wildung *8 at Naqah, and by Charles Bonnet at Kerma. The pertinent explorations and contributions of scholars like A. J. Arkell *9, P. L. Shinnie *10, and Laszlo Torok *11 that cover a span of 80 years reconstituted a large part of the greatness and splendor of this four millennia long African civilization.  

Yet, due to the lack of direct access to original sources and genuine understanding of the ancient history of Sudan, the legendary and historical Ethiopia of the Greeks and Romans, which corresponds to what was ‘Kush’ for the Hebrews (mentioned many times in the Bible) and ultimately ‘Kas’ for the ancient Egyptians *12 (mentioned in thousands of hieroglyphic, hieratic and demotic texts), we face a serious problem of terminology when it comes to Ancient Sudan’s earlier historical periods.  

We are confined to such terms as Period (or Group) A (3100 – 2700 BCE), *13 Period B *14 (2700 – 2300 BCE that starts with Pharaoh Snefru’s expedition, *15 which marks indeed the beginning of the time-honored and multi-faceted relationship between Kemet-Egypt and Kush), and Period C *16 (2300 – 2100 BCE), for one millennium of Ancient Sudanese (Ethiopian or Kushitic) History. For the said period, thanks to Ancient Egyptian texts, we have a plethora of ethnic names and state names referring to populations living in North Sudan’s territory (notably Wawat, Irtet, Setjiu,Yam, Zetjau, and Medjay *17); but we fail to correctly establish to whom these names exactly refer as ethno-linguistic groups (Kushitic? Nilo-Saharan? Western Hamitic?).

Subsequent periods of Ancient Sudanese History are also denoted in conventional manner, as this is highlighted by the term Period of Kerma *18 (2100 – 1500 BCE); this period is named after the modern city and archeological site, 500 km in the south of the present Sudanese – Egyptian border.  

What we know for sure is that, when the first Pharaohs of the New Empire invaded and colonized the entire area down to Kurgus *19 (more than 1000 km alongside the Nile, south of the present Sudanese – Egyptian border), they established two top Egyptian administrative positions, namely “Viceroy of Wawat” and “Viceroy of Kush/Kas”. Wawat is the area between Aswan and Abu Simbel or properly speaking, the area between the first and the second cataracts, whereas Kas is all the land that lies beyond. With the collapse of the Kerma culture, comes to end a first high-level culture and powerful state in the area of Kush.  

We employ the term ‘Kushitic Period’ *20 to refer to the subsequent periods: 

a) the Egyptian annexation (1500 – 950 BCE), which involved a permanent effort to egyptianize Kush that triggered in turn ceaseless Kushitic revolutions against the Pharaohs,  

b) the Kushitic independence (950 – 800 BCE), when a separate state was formed around Napata *21, present day Karima, 750 km south of the Sudanese – Egyptian border,  

c) the Kushitic expansion and involvement in Egypt (800 – 670 BCE, which corresponds mostly to the XXVth – ‘Ethiopian’ (meaning literally Sudanese) according to Manetho *22 – dynasty of Egypt, when the Theban clergy of Amun made an alliance with the Kushitic ‘Qore’, i.e. the Kings of Napata, who ruled Kush and Upper Egypt based on their two capitals, Napata and Thebes *23, (the alliance was directed against the pact that the Heliopolitan clergy of Ra had made with the Libyan princes who thus strengthened the separate state of Lower Egypt),  

Slide14

d) the Kushitic expulsion from Egypt, following the three successive invasions of Egypt by Emperors Assarhaddon *24 (in 671 BCE) and Assurbanipal *25 (in 669 BCE and 666 BCE) of Assyria, who made an alliance with the Heliopolitan *26 priesthood and the Libyan princes against the Theban clergy and the Kushitic kings, and  

e) the subsequent Kushitic state’s decline – period during which took place the successive invasions led by Psamtik/Psammetichus II of Egypt *27 (in 591 BCE) and by the Achaemenid *28 Persian Shah Kambudjiyah / Cambyses *29 (in 525 BCE).

The entire Kushitic period is considered as terminated with the completion of the transfer of the capital city at a much safer (and more distant from Egypt) location far in the south, namely at Meroe, in the area of present day Bagrawiyah beyond the point whereby Atbarah river unites with the Greater Nile. This event occurred at the end of the reign of Qore (King) Nastasen *30 between 335 and 315 BCE.  

Slide21 

We call ‘Meroitic’ the entire period that covers almost 700 years beginning around 260 BCE with the reign of the successors of Nastasen, notably Arkamaniqo / Ergamenes *31 (the most illustrious among the earliest ones and the first to be buried at Meroe / Bagrawiyah), and ending with the end of Meroe and the destruction of the Meroitic royal cities by the Axumite Abyssinian Negus Ezana *32 (ca. 370 CE). It is easily understood that the ‘Kushitic’ period antedates ‘Meroitic’ period, but both appellations are quite conventional.  

Slide27

 

The ancient people of Kush (or Ethiopia) entered into a period of cultural, intellectual, and scriptorial radiation and authenticity relatively late, around the third century BCE, which means that the development took place when Meroe replaced Napata as capital of the Kushites / Meroites. Before that moment, the ancient people of Kush (or Ethiopia) used Egyptian hieroglyphic writing for all their scriptorial purposes, be they administrative, economic, religious and/or monumental – royal. The introduction of the Meroitic alphabetic hieroglyphic writing spearheaded the development of a Meroitic cursive alphabetic scripture that was used for less magnificent purposes than palatial and sacred relief inscriptions. The first person to publish copies of Meroitic inscriptions (then unidentified) was the French architect Gau *33, who visited Northern Sudan as early as 1819. Quite unfortunately, almost two centuries after the discovery of the first Meroitic inscriptions, we are left in mysteries with regard to the greatest part of the contents of the epigraphic evidence collected in both scriptural systems.  

The earliest dated Meroitic hieroglyphic inscriptions belong to the reign of the ruling queen Shanakdakheto *34 (about 177-155 BCE), but archaeologists believe that this scripture represents the later phase of a language spoken by Kushites / Meroites at least as far back as 750 BCE and possibly many centuries or even millennia before that (hinting therefore at a Kushitic / Ethiopian continuity from the earliest Kerma days at the end of the 3rd millennium BCE). The earliest examples of Meroitic cursive inscriptions, recently found by Charles Bonnet in Dukki Gel (REM 1377-78) *35, can also be dated in the early 2nd century BCE. The latest text is still probably the famous inscription from Kalabsha (Ancient Egyptian Talmis) mentioning King Kharamadoye (REM 0094) *36, which dates back to the beginning of the fifth century CE, although some funeral texts from Ballana *37 could be contemporary or even posterior.  

Slide19

 

Despite the fact that F. L. Griffith identified the twenty three (23) Meroitic alphabetic writing signs already in 1909, not much progress has been made towards the ultimate decipherment of the Meroitic *38. Scarcity of epigraphic evidence plays a certain role in this regard, since as late as the year 2000 we were not able to accumulate more than 1278 texts in all types of Meroitic writing. If we now add to this fact the lack of lengthy texts, the lack of any bilingual text (not necessarily Egyptian /Meroitic, it could also be Ancient Greek / Meroitic, if we take into consideration that Arkamaniqo / Ergamenes *39 was personally well versed in Greek), and a certain lack of academic vision, we understand why the state of our knowledge about the history of the Ancient Meroites is still so limited.  

Linguistics and parallels from other languages have been repeatedly set in motion in order to help the academic research. Griffith and Haycock *40 tried to read Meroitic, through use of (modern) Nubian – quite unsuccessfully. K.H. Priese *41 tried to read the Meroitic texts, using Eastern Sudanese (Beja *42 or Hadendawa *43) languages – also unsuccessfully. On the other hand, F. Hintze *44, attempted to compare Meroitic with the Ural-Altaic group (Turko-Mongolian languages) to no avail. More recently, Siegbert Hummel *45, compared the “known” Meroitic words to words attested in languages of the Altaic family which he believed was a substrate language of Meroitic; as this hypothesis is totally wrong, no result came out of this effort. At times, scholars (like Clyde Winters *46) were driven to farfetched interpretations, attempting to equate Meroitic with Tokharian, after assuming a possible relationship between the names Kush and Kushan *47, the latter being the appellation of a sizeable Eastern Iranian state of the late Arsacid *48 (250 BCE – 224 CE) and early Sassanid *49 (224 – 651 CE) times. However, one has to conclude that the bulk of the researchers working on the Meroitic language never believed that the language of the Ancient Sudanese (Ethiopians) could ever be a member of the so-called Afro-Asiatic group of languages (the term itself being very wrong and quite fraudulent).  

So far, the only Meroitic words for which a solid translation had been given by Griffith and his successors are the following: man, woman, meat, bread, water, give, big, abundant, good, sister, brother, wife, mother, child, begotten, born, feet. The eventual equivalence between Egyptian and Meroitic texts was a strong motivation for any interpretational approach, recent or not. More recent, but still dubious, suggestions are the following: arohe- ‘protect’, hr- ‘eat’, pwrite ‘life’, yer ‘milk’, ar ‘boy’, are- or dm- ‘take, receive’, dime ‘cow’, hlbi ‘bull’, ns(e) ‘sacrifice’, sdk ‘journey’, tke- ‘love, revere’, we ‘dog’. It is clear that vocalization remains a real problem *50.  

naqa-sudan

 

Through the aforementioned we realize why collective works, like Fontes Historiae Nubiorum. Textual Sources for the History of the Middle Nile Region (vols. I – IV, edited by T. Eide, T. Haegg, R.H. Pierce, and L. Torok, University of Bergen, Bergen 1994, 1996. 1998 and 2000), are still seminal for our – unfortunately indirect, as based on Ancient Egyptian, Greek, Latin and Coptic texts – knowledge of Ancient Meroe. 

2. The End of Meroe  

Amidst numerous unclear points of the Kushitic / Meroitic (Ancient Sudanese / Ethiopian) History, the end of Meroe and the consequences under which it happened still remain a most controversial point among scholars. Quite indicatively, we may mention here the main efforts of historical reconstitution. 

A. Arkell, Sayce and others asserted that Meroe was captured and destroyed, following one military expedition led by Ezana of Axum. 

B. Reisner insisted that, after Ezana’s invasion and victory, Meroe remained a state under another dynasty tributary to Axum. 

C. Monneret de Villard and Hintze affirmed that Meroe was totally destroyed already before Ezana’s invasion, due to another, earlier Axumite Abyssinian raid. 

D. Torok, Shinnie, Kirwan, Haegg and others concluded that Meroe was defeated by a predecessor of Ezana, and continued existing as a vassal state.  

E. Bechhaus-Gerst specified that Meroe was invaded prior to Ezana’s raid, and that the Axumite invasion did not reach further lands north of Meroe *51.  

With two fragmentary inscriptions from Meroe, one from Axum, two graffitos from Kawa and Meroe, and one coin being all the evidence we have so far, we have little to properly reconstruct the details that led to the collapse of Meroe. One relevant source, the Inscription of Ezana (DAE 11, the ‘monotheistic’ inscription in vocalized Ge’ez), *52 remains a somewhat controversial historical source to be useful in this regard. The legendary Monumentum Adulitanum *53, lost but copied in a confused way by Cosmas Indicopleustes *54, may not shed light at all on this event. One point is sure, however: there was never a generalized massacre of the Meroitic inhabitants of the lands conquered by Ezana. The aforementioned DAE 11 inscription mentions just 758 Meroites killed by the Axumite forces.  

What is even more difficult to comprehend is the reason behind the scarcity of population attested on Meroitic lands in the aftermath of Ezana’s raid. The post-Meroitic and pre-Christian, transitional, phase of Sudan’s history is called X-Group *55 or Period, and also Ballana Period; this atypical appellation underscores the lack to historical insight that happens once more in the History of Ancient Sudan (Ethiopia).  

During the Ballana Period (X-Group) and contrarily to what happened for many centuries of Meroitic History, when the Meroitic South (the area between today’s Shendi *56 and Atbarah *57 in modern Sudan with the entire hinterland of Butana that was called Insula Meroe / Nesos Meroe, i.e. Island Meroe in the Antiquity) was overpopulated comparatively with the Meroitic North {the area between Napata / Karima and Abu Simbel *58 or further in the North, Aswan *59 (the area between Aswan and Abu Simbel was then called Triakontaschoinos *60 and politically, it was divided between Meroe and the Roman Empire)}, the previously under-populated area (i.e. the Meroitic North) gives us the impression of a more densely peopled region, if compared to the previous center of Meroitic power and population density (the Meroitic South). The new situation contradicts therefore the earlier descriptions and narrations by Dio Cassius *61 and Strabo *62.  

Furthermore, the name ‘Ballana period’ is quite indicative in this regard, because Ballana is located on Egyptian soil, whereas not far, south of the present Sudanese – Egyptian border, lies Karanog with its famous tumuli that bear evidence of Nubian (not Kushitic / Meroitic) upper hand in terms of social anthropology. The southernmost counterpart of Karanog culture can be found in Tangassi (nearby Karima, which represented the ‘North’ for what was the center of the earlier Meroitic power). This means that for the period immediately after the destruction of Meroe (ca. 370 CE), the Meroitic North offers the archaeological evidence that serves to name the entire period (Ballana Period), whereas the Meroitic South seems to have been totally uninhabited.  

In addition, in terms of culture, X-Group heralds a total break with the Meroitic tradition, with the Nubians and the Blemmyes/Beja outnumbering the Meroitic remnants and imposing a completely different cultural and socio-anthropological milieu out of which would later emanate the first and single Nubian state in the World History: Nobatia.  

Much confusion characterized modern scholars when referring to Kush or Meroe by using the modern term ‘Nubia’. By now, it is clear that the Nubians lived since times immemorial in both Egypt and the Sudan, being part of the history of these two lands. However, the Nubians are a Nilo-Saharan ethno-linguistic group different from the Hamitic Kushites / Meroites. At the times of X-Group and during the long centuries of Christian Sudan, we have the opportunity to attest the differences and the divergence between the Nubians and the Meroitic remnants.  

Following the collapse of the Meroitic state, the epicenter of the Nubian land, i.e. the area between the first (Aswan) and the third (Kerma) cataracts, rose to independence and prominence first, with capital at Faras, nearby the present day Sudanese – Egyptian border, around 450 CE. Nobatia institutionalized Coptic as religious (Christian) and administrative language, and Nubian language remained an oral only means of communication. The Nobatian control in the areas south of the third cataract was vague, nominal and precarious. Nobatia was linked with the Coptic (‘Monophysitic’) Patriarchate of Alexandria.

This means something very important for the Christian History of Sudan (Ethiopia); Christianization did not come from Abyssinia, and there was no cultural or religious impact exercised by Axum on (Ethiopia) Sudan. As in pre-Christian times, Ethiopia remained the absolute opposite of Abyssinia. In the true, historical Ethiopia (Sudan), Christianization came from the North (Egypt). Abyssinia (which cannot be called ‘Ethiopia’ and which has absolutely no right to the name of Ethiopia) was a marginal and isolated, tiny and mountainous state that basically controlled the land between Axum and Adulis (on the Red Sea shore). And King Ezana’s invasion and destruction of Meroe was an occasional and inconsequential event that did not bring forth any immediate major result.  

The Meroitic remnants underscored their difference from the Nubians / Nobatians, and the depopulated central part of the defunct state of Meroe rose to independence only later, in the first decades of the sixth century. Its name, Makuria, is in this regard a linguistic reminiscence of the name ‘Meroe’, but we cannot know its real origin and meaning. The remnant of the Meroitic populations inhabited the northern circumference of Makuria more densely, and the gravitation center revolved around Old Dongola (580 km south of Wadi Halfa), capital of this Christian Orthodox state that extended from Kerma to Shendi (the area of the sixth cataract), so for more than 1000 km alongside the Nile. But beyond the area of Karima (750 km in the south of Wadi Halfa) and the nearby famous Makurian monastery at Al Ghazali we have very scarce evidence of Christian antiquities. The old African metropolis of Meroe remained at the periphery of both, the Kushitic Ethiopian states of Makuria and Alodia and the Semitic Abyssinian state of Axum.  

Makurians highlighted their ideological – religious divergence from the Nubians, by adopting Greek, not Coptic, as religious language. They even introduced a new scripture for their Makurian language that seems to have been a later phase of Meroitic. Makurian was written in alphabetic Greek signs. Risen at a time of Christological disputes and theological conflicts that brought about a forceful polarization between the Greek Orthodox and the Coptic ‘Monophysitic’ Patriarchates of Alexandria, the state and the Christian church of Makuria sided with the Greek Patriarchate of Alexandria, in striking opposition to the Nobatian state and church that allied themselves with the Coptic Patriarchate of Alexandria.  

Further in the South, Alodia has long been called by modern scholars as the ‘third Christian state’ of Sudan, but recent discoveries in Soba, its capital (15 km at the east of Khartoum), suggest that Alodia rose first to independence (around 500 CE) and later adhered to Christianity (around 580 – 600 CE), following evangelization efforts deployed by missionary Nobatian priests (possibly in a sort of anti-Makurian religious diplomacy). In general, we know little about Alodia (or Aluwah or Alwa), and we actually don’t know whether they used a particular Alodian writing system.  

The later phases of the History of Christian Ethiopia (Sudan) encompass the Nobatian – Makkurian merge (around 1000 CE), which was necessary for the two Christian states to defend themselves against the Islamic pressure coming manly from the North (Egypt), the islamization of Makkuria in 1317, and finally, the late collapse of Christian Alodia in 1505.  

The question remains unanswered until today:  

– What happened to the bulk of the Meroitic population, i.e. the inhabitants of the Insula Meroe, the present day Butana? What occurred to the Meroites living between the fourth and the sixth cataracts after the presumably brief raid of Ezana of Axum, and the subsequent destruction of Meroe, Mussawarat es Sufra, Naqah, Wad ben Naqah, Basa and all the other important cities of the Meroitic heartland? 

3. Reconstruction of the Post-Meroitic History of the Kushitic Oromo Nation  

Certainly, the motives of Ezana’s raid have not yet been properly studied and assessed by modern scholarship. The reasons for the raid may vary from a simple nationalistic usurpation of the name of ‘Ethiopia’ (Kush), which would give a certain Christian eschatological legitimacy to the Axumite Abyssinian kingdom, to the needs of international politics (at the end of 4th c. CE) and the eventuality of an Iranian – Yemenite (Himyaritic) – Meroitic alliance at the times of Shapur II (310 – 379), aimed at outweighing the Eastern Roman – Abyssinian bond.  

Yet, this Iranian – Sudanese political alliance may have been only the later phase of a time-honored Iranian infiltration that could have taken the form of an (easily assessable by both civilizations and nations, the Meroites and the Iranians) heliocentric theology and imperial ideology. No less than 300-350 years before Ezana’s raid and destruction of Meroe, the famous Jebel Qeili reliefs of Shorakaror mark an impressive penetration of Mithraic artistic and religious concepts and forms.  

Slide45

Whatever the reasons of Ezana’s raid may have been, we can be quite sure, when it comes to the destruction of Meroe, about two determinant points that impose a fresh approach and interpretation of the historical development:

a) the absence of any large-scale massacre is evident, and  

b) the impressive scarcity of population in the old, central Meroitic provinces is a fact for the period that follows Ezana’s raid and the destruction of Meroe.

The only plausible explanation is that the scarcity of population in the Meroitic mainland after Meroe’s destruction must be due to a large scale migration to safer areas far from the reach of the king of Axum.  

The only explanation to match the historical facts and the archeological evidence is that, following Ezana’s raid, the Meroites in their outright majority (at least for the inhabitants of Meroe’s southern provinces) fled and migrated to areas where they would stay independent from the Semitic Abyssinian kingdom of Christian Axum. This explanation hinges on the best utilization and interpretation of the already existing historical – archaeological data.  

From archeological evidence, it becomes clear that during X-Group phase and throughout the Makurian period (so for many long centuries) the former heartland of Meroe remained mostly uninhabited. The end of Meroe is definitely very abrupt, and this makes obvious that Meroe’s driving force had gone elsewhere. The correct question would then be ‘where to’?  

There is no evidence of Meroites sailing the Nile downwards to the area of the 4th (Karima) and the 3rd (Kerma) cataracts, which was earlier the northern circumference of Meroe and remained totally untouched by Ezana. There is no textual evidence in Greek, Latin and/or Coptic to testify to such a migratory movement toward the North. Christian Roman Egypt would certainly be an incredible direction, but if this had been the case, the migration would have been recorded in some texts and monuments due to its importance. To the above, we have to add the impossibility of marching to the heartland of Abyssinia, because this must have been for the migrating Meroites the only direction to avoid, and again if it had occurred, it would have been mentioned in some historical sources, Ge’ez, Coptic, Syriac, Greek or Latin.  

Having therefore excluded all the migration alternatives as per above, we can examine the remaining possibilities. The migrating Meroites could therefore have a) gone either to the vast areas of the Eastern and the Western deserts , b) entered the African jungle or c) ultimately searched for a possibly free land that, being arable and good for pasture, would keep them far from the sphere of the Christian Axumites.  

It would be very erroneous and highly unlikely to expect settled people to move to the desert. Such an eventuality would be a unique oxymoron in the History of the Mankind. Nomadic peoples move from the steppes, the savannas and the deserts to other parts of the steppes, the savannas and the deserts or preferably to fertile lands and settle there, at times crossing really long distances. However, settled people, if under pressure, move to other fertile lands that offer them the possibility of cultivation and pasture. When dispersed by the invading Sea Peoples, the Hittites moved from Anatolia to Northwestern Mesopotamia, crossing long distances; they did not cross shorter distance to settle in the small part of Central Anatolia that happened to be desert. The few scholars, who may think that Meroitic continuity can be found among the present day Beja and Hadendawa, are oblivious to the aforementioned reality that was never contravened throughout World History. In addition, the Blemmyes had never been friendly to the Meroites. Every now and then, they had attacked parts of the Nile valley and the Meroites had had to repulse them thence. It would rather be inconceivable for the Meroitic population, after seeing Meroe sacked by Ezana, to move to a land where life would be far more difficult and, in addition, enemies would wait them!  

At this point, we should briefly examine Meroe’s surrounding environment, how it is today, and how it was before 1650 years, at the times of king Ezana’s raid. Modern technologies help historians and archeologists better reconstruct the ancient world; paleo-botanists, geologists, geo-chemists, paleo-entomologists, and other specialized natural scientists are of great help in this regard. It is essential to stress here that the entire environmental milieu of Sudan was very different during the times of the Late Antiquity that we examine in our approach. Butana may look like a wasteland nowadays, and the Pyramids of Bagrawiyah may be sunk in the sand, whereas Mussawarat es Sufra and Naqah truly demand a real effort in crossing the desert. However, in the first centuries of Christian era, the entire landscape was dramatically different.

During the Meroitic and Christian times, the entire Butana region, delineated by the rivers Atbarah in the northeast, United Nile in the north-northwest, and Blue Nile in southwest, was not a desert, but a very fertile and extensively cultivated land. We have actually found remains of reservoirs, aqueducts, various hydraulic installations, irrigation systems, and canals in Meroe and elsewhere. Not far from Mussawarat es Sufra there must have been an enclosure where captive elephants were trained before being transported to Ptolemais Theron (present day Suakin, 50 km south of Port Sudan) and then further on to Alexandria. Desert was in the vicinity, certainly, but not that close.  

We should not imagine that Ezana crossed desert areas, moving from the vicinities of Agordat, Tesseney (both cities being located in Eritrea), and Kessala (in Sudan) to Atbarah and Bagrawiyah, as we would do today. These lands were either forested or cultivated and used as pasturelands. For what the Meroitic Ethiopian state was in the middle – second half of the 4th c. CE, its capital was located quite close to the Abyssinian borders in the mountains beyond the modern Sudanese city of Kessala; the distance between the two capitals, Meroe and Axum, was much smaller than the distance between Meroe and its northern borders with the Christian Eastern Roman Empire.  

In fact, the end of the Meroitic state is a historical irony; it was established with the transfer of capital from Napata to Meroe, ca. 750 years earlier, an act which was due to defense reasons and imposed only after the 6th c. BCE attacks that originated from the North (Egypt). By transferring their capital far to the southeast, the Ancient Kushites / Meroites of Ethiopia (Sudan) made it impregnable from the North; but by so doing, they exposed their capital to an attack from the southeast. However, one has to admit that, at the times of the Ethiopian – Kushitic capital transfer to the southeast (5th – 4th c. BCE), the presence of the Yemenite tribe of Habashat in the African coast land of Eritrea was insignificant and Axum did not exist.  

Further expanding on the natural environment of the Ancient Meroites, we have to add that it would be highly unlikely for anyone to attempt to cross at that time the lands south of present day Khartoum, alongside the White Nile. In ancient times, impenetrable jungle started immediately in the south of Khartoum, and cities like El Obeid, Kosti, Sinnar, and Jabalayn are today located on deforested soil.  

Contrarily to the aforementioned improbabilities (desert, jungle), the southernmost confines of the Meroitic state offered a certain possibility for migration, since pasturelands and arable land could be found alongside the Blue Nile Valley. Reaching that area, they would achieve safety from Axumite Abyssinia due to the greater distance.  

Jungle signified death in the Antiquity, and even armies feared to cross forests and be forced to stay overnight there. We therefore have good reason to believe that, following Ezana’s raid, the Meroites, rejecting the perspective of forced christening, moved first southwestwards up to Khartoum. From there, they proceeded southeastwards alongside the Blue Nile in a direction that would keep them always safe and far from the Axumite Abyssinians whose state did not expand at those days as far in the south as Gondar and Tana Lake. Proceeding in this way and crossing successively areas of modern cities like Wad Madani, Sennar, Damazin, and Asosa, and from there on, they expanded in later times over the various parts of Biyya Oromo.  

We do not imply that the migration was completed in the span of one lifetime; quite contrarily, we have reasons to believe that the establishment of Alodia (or Alwa) is rather due to the progressive waves of Meroitic migrants who settled first in the area of Khartoum that was out of the southwestern confines of the Meroitic state. Only when Christianization became a matter of concern for the evangelizing Nobatians, and the two Christian Sudanese states of Nobatia and Makuria were already strong, the chances of preserving the pre-Christian Meroitic cultural heritage in the area around Soba (capital of Alodia) became truly poor. Then, perhaps more than 100 years after the first migration, another wave of migration took place with the early Alodian Meroites proceeding as far in the southeast as Damazin and Asosa, areas that remained always beyond the southern border of Alodia (presumably between Khartoum and Wad Madani). Like this, the second migratory Meroitic Alodian) wave may have entered around 600 CE in the area where the Oromos, descendents of the migrated Meroites, still live today.  

Slide38

A great number of changes at the cultural – intellectual – behavioral levels are to be expected, when a settled people migrates to faraway lands. The Phoenicians had kings in Tyre, Byblos and their other cities – states in today’s Lebanese and Syrian coast lands, but they introduced a democratic system when they sailed faraway and colonized various parts of the Mediterranean. In their colonies, there were no more kings.  

Ezana’s raid ended up with the extermination of some garrison and the Meroitic royal family. The collapse of the Meroitic royalty was an unprecedented event and a greater shock for the Nile valley. The Christian kingdoms of Nobatia, Makuria and Alodia were all ruled by kings whose power was to great extent conditioned and counterbalanced by that of the Christian clergy.  

With the Meroitic royal family decimated by Ezana, it is quite possible that high priests of Apedemak and Amani (Amun) took much of the administrative responsibility in their hands, inciting people to migrate and establishing a form of collective and representative authority among the Meroitic – Alodian Elders who thus retained the sacerdotal heritage without a royal – palatial contextualization. They may even have preserved the royal title of Qore within completely different socio-anthropological context and thus made it known to the ancestors of today’s Somalis when the next waves of migration brought the two Kushitic nations close to one another; and the Somalis preserved the term a Boqor within their language until our times. 

4. Call for Comparative Meroitic-Oromo Studies  

How can this approach, interpretation, and conclusion be corroborated up to the point of becoming a generally accepted historical reconstitution at the academic level? On what axes should one group of researchers work to collect detailed documentation in support of the Meroitic ancestry of the Oromos?  

Quite strangely, I would not give priority to the linguistic approach. The continuity of a language can prove many things, and at the same time, it can prove nothing. Today’s Bulgarians are of Uralo-Altaic Turco-Mongolian origin, but, after they settled in Eastern Balkans, they were linguistically slavicized. Most of the Greeks are Albanians, Slavs, and Vlachians, who were greecized linguistically. Most of the Turks in Turkey are Greeks and Anatolians, who were turkicized linguistically.  

People can preserve their own language in various degrees and forms. For the case of languages preserved throughout millennia, we notice tremendous changes and differences. Within the context of Ancient Greece, Plato who lived in the 5th – 4th c. BCE could never understand the Achaean Greek dialect which was spoken 800 years earlier at Myceanae and written by means of what we call today ‘Linear B’ (a syllabic, not alphabetic, writing system).  

Egyptian hieroglyphics as a Holy Language (the Ancient Egyptian name of this writing system was ‘medu netsher’ which meant ‘the words of the God’) and as a sacerdotal scripture favored a certain archaism and a constant linguistic purification. However, we can be sure that for later Pharaohs, like Taharqa the Kushite (the most illustrious ruler of the Kushitic – Sudanese / Ethiopian dynasty), Psamtik and Nechao (the rulers of the ‘Libyan’ dynasty), and Ptolemy II and Cleopatra VII (of the Macedonian Ptolemaic dynasty), a Pyramid text (that antedated them by 1700 to 2300 years) would almost be incomprehensible. 

A. National diachronic continuity is better attested and more markedly noticed in terms of Culture, Religion and Philosophical – Behavioral system. The first circle of comparative research should encompass the world of the Kushitic / Meroitic and Oromo concepts, anything that relates to the Weltanschauung of the two cultural units/groups under study; this should involve a religious-historical comparison between the Ancient Kushitic / Meroitic religion and Waaqeffannaa. A common view of basic themes of life and a common perception of the world, same virtues and values, shared concepts and principles would bring a significant corroboration of the Meroitic ancestry of the Oromos. So, first it is a matter of history of religions, African philosophy, social anthropology, ethnography and culture history. 

B. Archeological research can help tremendously too. At this point, one has to state that the critical area for the reconstruction of the suggested Meroitic migration did not attract the interest of Egyptologists, and of archaeologists specializing in Meroitic and Sudanese Antiquities. The area was indeed marginal to both civilizations, and to some extent it is normal that it did not attract scholars who could easily unearth other monumental sites elsewhere and have more spectacular results. The Blue Nile valley in Sudan and Abyssinia was never the subject of an archeological survey, and the same concerns the Oromo highlands. Certainly modern archeologists prefer something concrete that would lead them fast to a great discovery, being therefore very different from the pioneering 19th c. archeologists. An archeological surface survey would therefore be necessary in the Blue Nile valley and in the Oromo highlands in the years to come.  

C. A linguistic – epigraphic approach may bring forth even more spectacular results. It could eventually end up with a complete decipherment of the Meroitic, and of the Makurian. An effort must be made to read the Meroitic texts, hieroglyphic and cursive, with the help of Oromo language. Meroitic personal names and toponymics must be studied in the light of a potential Oromo interpretation. Comparative linguistics may unveil affinities that will lead to reconsideration of the work done so far in the Meroitic decipherment. 

D. Last but not least, another dimension would be added to the project with the initiation of comparative anthropological studies. Data extracted from findings in the Meroitic cemeteries must be compared with data provided by the anthropological study of present day Oromos. The research must encompass pictorial documentation from the various Meroitic temples’ bas-reliefs.  

To all these I would add a better reassessment of the existing historical sources, but this is not a critical dimension of this research project.  

I believe my call for Comparative Meroitic – Oromo Studies reached the correct audience that can truly evaluate the significance of the ultimate corroboration of the Meroitic Ancestry of the Oromos, as well as the magnificent consequences that such a corroboration would have in view of  

a) the forthcoming Kushitic Palingenesia – or Renaissance if you want – across Africa,  

b) the establishment of a Post -Colonial African Historiography, and – last but not least –

c) the Liberation of Oromia and the Representation of the Ancient Kushitic Nation in the United Nations.  

Notes  

1. To those having the slightest doubt, trying for purely political reasons and evil speculation to include territories of the modern state of Abyssinia into what the Ancient Greeks and Romans called ‘Aethiopia’, the academically authoritative entry Aethiopia in Pauly-Wissowa, Realenzyklopadie der klassischen Altertumwissenschaft consists in the best and irrevocable answer.  

2. http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/information … karl.html; http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Richard_Lepsius; parts of the Denkmaeler are already available online: http://edoc3.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/bo … start.html. Also: http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/LEO_LOB/L … 1884_.html. The fact that the farthermost point of ‘Ethiopia’ that he reached was Khartoum is of course quite telling.  

3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E._A._Wallis_Budge; he wrote among the rest a book on his Meroe excavations’ results, The Egyptian Sudan: its History and Monuments (London, 1907).  

4. Mythical figure of the British Orientalism, Garstang excavated in England, Turkey, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and the Sudan; Albright, William Foxwell: “John Garstang in Memoriam”, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 144. (Dec., 1956), pp. 7-8; Garstang’s major articles on his Meroe excavations are the following: ‘Preliminary Note on an Expedition to Meroe in Ethiopia’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 3 (1911 – a), ‘Second Interim Report on the Excavations at Meroe in Ethiopia, I. Excavations’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 4 (1911 – b), ‘Third Interim Report on the Excavations at Meroe in Ethiopia’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 5 (1912), ‘Forth Interim Report on the Excavations at Meroe in Ethiopia’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 6 (1913), and ‘Fifth Interim Report on the Excavations at Meroe in Ethiopia’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 7 (1914). His major contribution was published in the same year under the title ‘Meroe, the City of Ethiopians’ (Oxford). A leading Meroitologist, Laszlo Torok wrote an entire volume on Garstang’s excavations at Meroe: Meroe City, an Ancient African Capital: John Garstang’s Excavations in the Sudan.  

5 Griffith was the epigraphist of Grastand and had already published the epigraphic evidence unearthed at Meroe in the chapter entitled ‘the Inscriptions from Meroe’ in Garstang’s ‘Meroe, the City of Ethiopians’. After many pioneering researches and excavations in various parts of Egypt and Northern Sudan, Faras, Karanog, Napata and Philae to name but a few, Griffith concentrated on Kerma: ‘Excavations at Kawa’, Sudan Notes and Records 14.  

6. Basically: http://www.sag-online.de/pdf/mittsag9.5.pdf; among other contributions: Die Inschriften des Loewentempels von Musawwarat es Sufra, Berlin (1962); Vorbericht ueber die Ausgrabungen des Instituts fuer Aegyptologie der Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin in Musawwarat es Sufra, 1960-1961 (1962); ‘Musawwarat es Sufra – Preliminary Report on the Excavations of the Institute of Egyptology, Humboldt University, Berlin, 1961-1962 (Third Season)’, Kush 11 (1963); ‘Preliminary Note on the Epigraphic Expedition to Sudanese Nubia, 1962’, Kush 11 (1963); ‘Preliminary note on the Epigraphic Expedition to Sudanese Nubia, 1963’, Kush 13 (1965)  

7. As regards my French professor’s publications about his excavations at Sudan: Soleb and Sedeinga in Lexikon der Aegyptologie 5, Wiesbaden 1984 (entries contributed by J. Leclant himself); also J. Leclant, Les reconnaissances archéologiques au Soudan, in: Etudes nubiennes I, 57-60.  

8. His recent volume Sudan: Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile, Paris/New York (1997) contains earlier bibliography.  

9. Some of his most authoritative publications: ‘A History of the Sudan from the Earliest Times to 1821′, 1961 (2nd Ed.), London; ”The Valley of the Nile’, in: The Dawn of African History, R. Oliver (ed.), London. Arkell is mostly renowned for his monumental ‘The Royal Cemeteries of Kush’ in many volumes.  

10. Presentation of his ‘Ancient Nubia’ in: http://www.keganpaul.com/product_info.p … cts_id=33; for a non exhaustive list of Shinnie’s publications: http://www.arkamani.org/bibliography%20 … ia2.htm#S; see also a presentation of a volume on Meroe, edited by Shinnie et alii: http://www.harrassowitz-verlag.de/mcgi/1163879905{haupt_harrassowitz= http://www.harrassowitz-verlag.de/acgi/a.cgi?alayout=489&ausgabe=detail&aref=353.  

11. Many of his publications are listed here:   http://www.arkamani.org/bibliography%20 … ia2.htm#S; also here: http://www.arkamani.org/bibliography%20 … ypt4.htm#T. In the Eighth International Conference for Meroitic Studies, L. Torok spoke about ‘The End of Meroe’; the speech will be included in the arkamani online project, here: http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … -meroe.htm  

12. Useful reading: http://www.culturekiosque.com/art/exhib … souda.htm; also: http://www.nubianet.org/about/about_history4.html; see also the entry ‘Kush’ in Lexikon der Aegyptologie and the Encyclopedia Judaica. More specifically about the Egyptian Hieroglyphic and the Hebrew writings of the name of Kush: http://www.specialtyinterests.net/journey_to_nubia.html. For more recent bibliography: http://blackhistorypages.net/pages/kush.php. Also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cush%2C_son_of_Ham.  

13. Basic bibliography in: http://www.arkamani.org/bibliography%20 … y_a_b.htm; http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/PROJ/NUB/NUBX … chure.html.   More particularly on Qustul, and the local Group A Cemetery that was discovered in the 60s by Dr. Keith Seele: http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/qustul.html (by Bruce Beyer Williams). Quite interesting approach by Clyde Winters as regards an eventual use of Egyptian Hieroglyphics in Group A Nubia, 200 years before the system was introduced in Egypt: http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Bay/7051/anwrite.htm.  

14. Brief info: http://www.nubianet.org/about/about_history3_1.html; see also: http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/IS/RITNER/Nubia_2005.html; more recently several scholars consider Group B as an extension of Group A (GRATIEN, Brigitte, La Basse Nubie a l’ Ancien Empire: Egyptiens et autochtones, JEA 81 (1995), 43-56).  

15. Readings: http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/geoghist/histories/oldcivilization/Egyptology/Nubia/nubiad1.htm; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sneferu; ht … %20Snefrue),%201st%20King%20of%20Egypt’s%204th%20Dynasty.htm (with bibliography); http://www.narmer.pl/dyn/04en.htm; for the Palermo stone inscription where we have the Nubia expedition narrative: http://www.britannica.com/ebi/article-9332360; http://www.ancient-egypt.org/index.html (click on the Palermo Stone); http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palermo_stone (with related bibliography). 

16. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nubian_C-Group; (the title being however very wrong because this culture was not Nubian) http://www.numibia.net/nubia/c-group.htm; http://www.gustavianum.uu.se/sje/sjeexh.htm and http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/ta/tae.html (with designs and pictures); http://www.ancientsudan.org/03_burials_02_early.htm (with focus on Group C burials and burial architecture); see also: http://www.ualberta.ca/~nlovell/nubia.htm; http://www.dignubia.org/maps/timeline/bce-2300a.htm  

17. References in the Lexikon der Aegyptologie. See also: http://www.nigli.net/akhenaten/wawat_1.html; one of the related sources: The Story of an Egyptian Politician, published by T. G. Allen, in: American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Vol. 38, No. 1 (Oct., 1921), pp. 55-62; Texts relating to Egyptian expeditions in Yam and Irtet: http://www.osirisnet.net/tombes/assouan … rkouf.htm; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medjay; more in ‘Ancient Nubia: Egypt’s Rival in Africa’ (Paperback) by David O’ Connor, http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/092417 … 67-0196731.  

18. Brief description: http://www.anth.ucsb.edu/faculty/stsmit … erma.html; http://www.spicey.demon.co.uk/Nubianpag … htm#French (with several interesting links); http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Kerma (brief but with recent bibliography containing some of Bonnet’s publications)  

19. Vivian Davies, ‘La frontiere meridionale de l’ Empire : Les Egyptiens a Kurgus, in: Bulletin de la Societe francaise d’ Egyptologie, 2003, no157, pp. 23-37 (http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=15281726); about the ongoing British excavations: http://www.sudarchrs.org.uk/page17.html; about the inscription of Thutmosis I: http://thutmosis_i.know-library.net; also: http://www.meritneith.de/politik_neuesreich.htm, and http://www.aegyptologie.com/forum/cgi-b … 0514112733.  

20. In brief and with images: http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/um/umj.html; also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kush (with selected recent bibliography) and http://www.mfa.org/collections/search_a … kage=26155 (for art visualization). The period is also called Napatan, out of the Kushitic state capital’s name: http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/kingaspalta.html.

21. To start with: http://www.bartleby.com/67/99.html; http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9054804/Napata; http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/archaeology … apata.html (including references); most authoritative presentation by Timothy Kendall ‘Gebel Barkal and Ancient Napata’ in: http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … nubia.htm; also: ‘the Rise of the Kushitic kingdom’ by Brian Yare, in: http://www.yare.org/essays/kushite%20ki … Napata.htm. For Karima, notice the interesting itinerary: http://lts3.algonquincollege.com/africa … /sudan.htm, and http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karima.  

22. Introductory reading: http://www.ancient-egypt.org/index.html (click on Manetho); http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manetho (with selected bibliography). Among the aforementioned, the entries Manethon (Realenzyklopaedie) and Manetho (Lexikon der Aegyptologie) are essential.  

23. For the Ethiopian dynasty, all the related entries in the Lexikon and the Realenzyklopaedie (Piankhi, Shabaka, Shabataka, Taharqa, Tanutamon) are the basic bibliography to start with; see also: http://www.ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/3017.html; the last edition (1996) of Kenneth Kitchen’s ‘The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100 – 650 BC)’, Warminster: Aris & Phillips Ltd, remains the best reassessment of the period and the related sources. Introductory information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shabaka; http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shabataka; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taharqa; and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tantamani. Also: http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/mentuemhat.html; critical bibliography for understanding the perplex period is to be found in Jean Leclant’s lectureship thesis (these d’ Etat) ‘Montouemhat, Quatrieme Prophete d’Amon’, (1961)  

24. Basics: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assarhaddon; the edition of the Assyrian emperor’s annals by R. Borger (Die Inschriften Assarhaddons, Koenigs von Assyrien, AfO 9, Graz, 1956) remain our basic reference to formal sources. More recently, F. Reynolds shed light on private sources, publishing ‘The Babylonian correspondence of Esarhaddon, and letters to Assurbanipal and Sin-Sarru-Iskun from Northern and Central Babylonia’ (SAA 18, 2004).  

25. For the Greater Emperor of the Oriental Antiquity: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashurbanipal; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shamash-shum-ukin; http://web.utk.edu/~djones39/Assurbanipal.html; until today we have to rely mostly on the voluminous edition of Assurbanipal’s Annals by Maximilian Streck (Assurbanipal und die letzten assyrischen Koenige bis zum Untergang Niniveh, Leipzig,1916); see also M. W. Waters’ Te’umman in the neo-Assyrian correspondence (Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1999, vol. 119, no3, pp. 473-477)  

26. Heliopolis (Iwnw in Egyptian Hieroglyphic, literally the place of the pillars; On in Hebrew and in Septuagint Greek) was the center of Egyptian monotheism, the holiest religious center throughout Ancient Egypt; it is from Heliopolis that emanated the two foremost Ancient Egyptian theological systems, namely the Isiac ideology and the Atum Ennead. Basic readings: the entry Heliopolis in Realenzyklopaedie and in Lexikon der Aegyptologie; more recently: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heliopolis_%28ancient%29.  

27. Basic readings: http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chron … tiki.html; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psammetichus_I; http://www.phouka.com/pharaoh/pharaoh/d … tik1.html; http://www.specialtyinterests.net/psamtek.html (with pictorial documentation). See also: http://www.nubianet.org/about/about_history6.html.  

28. Hakhamaneshian is the first Persian dynasty; it got momentum when Cyrus II invaded successively Media and Babylon. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achaemenid_dynasty (with selected bibliography); the 2nd volume of the Cambridge History of Iran is dedicated to Achaemenid history (contents: http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/c … 0521200911.  

29. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cambyses_II_of_Persia (with bibliography and sources). Cambyses invaded Kush and destroyed Napata at the times of Amani-natake-lebte, but his embattled army was decimated according to the famous narratives of Herodotus that still need to be corroborated. What seems more plausible is that, having reached in an unfriendly milieu of the Saharan desert where they had no earlier experience, the Persians soldiers, at a distance of no less than 4000 km from their capital, faced guerilla undertaken by the Kushitic army remnants and their nomadic allies.  

30. Nastasen was the last to be buried in Nuri, in the whereabouts of Napata. Contemporary with Alexander the Great, Nastasen fought against an invader originating from Egypt whose name was recorded as Kambasawden. This led many to confuse the invader with Cambyses, who ruled 200 years earlier (!). The small inscription on the Letti stela does not allow great speculation; was it an attempt of Alexander the Great to proceed to the south of which we never heard anything? Impossible to conclude; for photographical documentation: http://www.dignubia.org/bookshelf/ruler … 00017&ord=. Another interpretation: http://www.nubia2006.uw.edu.pl/nubia/ab … 94e6349d8b.  

31. Arkamaniqo was the first to have his pyramid built at Meroe, not at Napata. See: http://www.dignubia.org/bookshelf/ruler … 0018&ord=; http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergamenes. He inaugurated the architectural works at Dakka, the famous ancient Egyptian Pa Serqet, known in Greek literature as Pselkhis (http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/dakka.htm), in veneration of God Thot, an endeavour that brought the Ptolemies and the Meroites in alliance.  

32. For Abyssinia’s conversion to Christianity: http://www.spiritualite2000.com/page.php?idpage=555, and http://www.rjliban.com/Saint-Frumentius.doc. The Wikipedia entry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ezana_of_Axum) is written by ignorant and chauvinist people, and is full of mistakes, ascribing provocatively and irrelevantly to Ezana’s state the following territories (using modern names): ‘present-day Eritrea, northern Ethiopia, Yemen, southern Saudi Arabia, northern Somalia, Djibouti, northern Sudan, and southern Egypt’. This is just rubbish. All this shows how misleading this irrelevant ‘encyclopedia’ can at times be. Neither southern Egypt, nor northern Sudan, nor northern Somalia, nor Djibouti, nor Yemen, nor southern Saudi Arabia ever belonged to Ezana’s small kingdom that extended from Adulis to Axum. It is only after that king’s victory over Meroe that his kingdom included also a tiny portion of modern Sudan’s territories, namely the region between Kessala, Atbara and Bagrawiyah where the site of Ancient Meroe is located. But this was quite precarious and soon the Abyssinian control over that part of Ethiopia (: Sudan) ended.  

33. Richard A. Lobban, ‘The Nubian Dynasty of Kush and Egypt: Continuing Research on Dynasty XXV’: http://209.85.129.104/search?q=cache:4F … clnk&cd=2; these inscriptions were published as early as 1821: E. F. Gau, Nubische Denkmaeler (Stuttgart). Other early publications on Meroitic antiquities: E. Riippell, Reisen in Nubien, Kordofan, & c. (Frankfort a. M., 1829); F. Caillaud, Voyage a Meroe (Paris, 1826); J. L. Burckhardt, Travels in Nubia, e5fc. (London, 1819); G. Waddington and B. Hanbury, Journal of a Visit to some parts of Ethiopia (London, 1822); L. Reinisch, Die Nuba-Sprache (Vienna, 1879); Memoirs of the Societe khediviale de Geographic, Cairo. 

34. Readings: http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/candace.html; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shanakdakhete; more analytically: http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … graphy.htm. The only inscription giving her name comes from Temple F in Naga (REM 0039A-B). The name appears in Meroitic hieroglyphics in the middle of an Egyptian text. See also: Laszlo Torok, in: Fontes Historiae Nubiorum, Vol. II, Bergen 1996, 660-662. The first attempts to render full Meroitic phrases into hieroglyphs (not only personal names, as it was common earlier) can be dated from the turn of the 3rd / 2nd century BCE, but they reflect the earlier stage of the development.  

35. C. Rilly, ‘Les graffiti archaiques de Doukki Gel et l’apparition de l’ ecriture meroitique’. Meroitic Newsletter, 2003, No 30: 41-55, pl. IX-XIII (fig. 41-48).  

36. Michael H. Zach, ‘Aksum and the end of Meroe’, in: http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … s/Zach.htm. See also: http://www.soas.ac.uk/lingfiles/working … rowan2.pdf. Also: Clyde A. Winters, ‘Meroitic evidence for a Blemmy empire in the Dodekaschoinos’ in: http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … labsha.htm. Kharamadoye was a Blemmyan / Beja king who lived around the year 330 CE, and his inscription was curved on the Nubian/Blemmyan temple at Kalabsha (ancient Talmis) in the south of Aswan; more: M. S. Megalommatis, ‘Sudan’s Beja / Blemmyes, and their Right to Freedom and Statehood’, in: http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/8-16-2006-105657.asp, and in: http://www.sudaneseonline.com/en/article_929.shtml. More general: http://www.touregypt.net/kalabsha.htm.  

37. For Ballana: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ballana; http://www.numibia.net/nubia/sites_salv … p_Numb=13; http://www.dignubia.org/maps/timeline/ce-0400.htm; http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/fne … ndex.html; for the excavations carried out there: Farid Shafiq, ‘Excavations at Ballana, 1958-1959’, Cairo, 1963: http://www.archaeologia.com/details.asp?id=647.  

38. His publications encompass the following: ‘Karanog: the Meroitic Inscriptions of Karanog and Shablul’, (The Eckley B. Coxe Junior Expedition to Nubia VI), Philadelphia, 1911; ‘Meroitic Inscriptions, I, Soba to Dangul, Oxford, 1911; ‘Meroitic Inscriptions part II, Napata to Philae and Miscellaneous’, Egypt Exploration Society, Archaeological Survey of Egypt, Memoirs, London, 1912; ‘Meroitic Studies II’, in: Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, vol. 3 (1916).  

39. Readings: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergamenes; http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arqamani; list of sources concerning Ergamenes II: Laszlo Torok, ‘Fontes Historiae Nubiorum’, vol. II, Bergen 1996, S. 566-567; further: http://www.chs.harvard.edu/publications … tei.xml_1; http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Article/813603; an insightful view: Laszlo Torok, ‘Amasis and Ergamenes’, in: The Intellectual Heritage of Egypt. Studies Presented to Laszlo Kakosy, 555-561. An English translation of Diodorus’ text on Ergamenes (III. 6) is here: http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/diodorus.html.  

40. B. G. Haycock, ‘The Problem of the Meroitic Language’, Occasional Papers in Linguistics and Language Learning, no.5 (1978), p. 50-81; see also: http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … nology.htm. Another significant contribution: B. G. Haycock, ‘Towards a Data for King Ergamenes’, Kush 13 (1965)

41. See: K. H. Priese, ‘Die Statue des napatanischen Koenigs Aramatelqo (Amtelqa) Berlin, Aegyptisches Museum Inv.-Nr. 2249 in: Festschrift zum 150 jaehrigen Bestehen des Berliner Aegyptischen Museums, Berlin; of the same author, ‘Matrilineare Erbfolge im Reich von Napata’, Zeitschrift fuer Aegyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, 108 (1981).  

42. Readings: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ … /beja.htm; http://bejacongress.com;  

43. Basic reading: Egeimi, Omer Abdalla, ‘From Adaptation to Marginalization: The Political Ecology of Subsistence Crisis among the Hadendawa Pastoralists of Sudan’, in: Managing Scarcity: Human Adaptation in East African Drylands, edited by Abdel Ghaffar M. Ahmed and Hassan Abdel Ati, 30-49. Proceedings of a regional workshop, Addis Ababa, 24-26 August 1995. Addis Ababa: OSSREA, 1996 (http://www.africa.upenn.edu/ossrea/ossreabiblio.html).  

44. F. Hintze, ‘Some problems of Meroitic philology’, in: Studies in Ancient Languages of the Sudan, pp. 73-78; see discussions: http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Bay/7051/mero.htm and http://www.soas.ac.uk/lingfiles/working … rowan2.pdf

45. In various publications; see indicatively: ‘Die meroitische Sprache und das protoaltaische Sprachsubstrat als Medium zu ihrer Deutung (I): Mit aequivalenten von grammatikalischen Partikeln und Wortgleichungen’, Ulm/Donau (1992).  

46. See: http://www.geocities.com/athens/academy … ersc2.html (with extensive list of publications).  

47. Readings: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/kush/hd_kush.htm (with further bibliography); http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kushan_Empire; http://www.kushan.org; (with pictorial documentation) http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/kush/hd_kush.htm; http://www.asianart.com/articles/jaya/index.html (with references)  

48. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arsacid_Dynasty; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthia; authoritative presentation in Cambridge History of Iran  

49. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sassanid_Empire (with further bibliography); authoritative presentation in Cambridge History of Iran.  

50. See: http://arkamani.org/meroitic_studies/li … oitic.htm; http://arkamani.org/arkamani-library/me … rilly.htm; http://arkamani.org/arkamani-library/me … graphy.htm  

51. http://arkamani.org/arkamani-library/me … s/Zach.htm (with reference to epigraphic sources)  

52. More recently: R.Voigt, The Royal Inscriptions of King Ezana, in the Second International Littmann Conference: Aksum 7-11 January 2006 (see: http://www.oidmg.org/Beirut/downloads/L … Report.pdf); also: http://users.vnet.net/alight/aksum/mhak4.html; http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=37430160. Read also: Manfred Kropp, Die traditionellen Aethiopischen Koenigslisten und ihre Quellen, in: http://www2.rz.hu-berlin.de/nilus/net-p … listen.pdf (with bibliography).  

53. Readings: http://www.telemaco.unibo.it/epigr/testi05.htm; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monumentum_Adulitanum; http://www.shabait.com/staging/publish/ … 3290.html; http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/aksum.html; http://www.arikah.net/encyclopedia/Adulis; further: Yuzo Shitomi, ‘A New Interpretation of the Monumentum Adulitanum’, in: Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko, 55 (1997). French translation is available online here: http://www.clio.fr/BIBLIOTHEQUE/les_gre … hiopie.asp.  

54. Readings: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04404a.htm; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmas_Indicopleustes; text and translation can be found online: http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/awiesner/cosmas.html (with bibliography and earlier text/translation publications; http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/#Cosm … opleustes; and http://www.ccel.org/ccel/pearse/more … copleustes Also: http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/EMwebpages/202.html; http://davidburnet.com/EarlyFathers-Oth … eintro.htm.  

55. Readings: http://library.thinkquest.org/22845/kus … oyalty.pdf  

56. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shendi; N. I. Nooter, The Gates of Shendi, Los Angeles, 1999 (http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1565561)  

57. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atbarah; http://www.country-studies.com/sudan/th … ples.html; http://www.sudan.net/tourism/cities.html.  

58. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abu_Simbel; http://www.bibleplaces.com/abusimbel.htm; http://lexicorient.com/e.o/abu_simbel.htm  

59. Syene (Aswan): see the entries of Realenzyklopaedie and Lexikon der Aegyptologie; also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aswan; http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14367a.htm  

60. http://www.numibia.net/nubia/ptolemies.htm; http://rmcisadu.let.uniroma1.it/nubiaco … zymski.doc. Dodekaschoinos was the northern part of Triakontaschoinos; the area was essential for Roman border security: http://poj.peeters-leuven.be/content.ph … al_code=AS. More recently: http://dissertations.ub.rug.nl/facultie … f.dijkstra 

61. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dio_Cassius; see details of the early Roman rule over Egypt here: Timo Stickler, ‘Cornelius Gallus and the Beginnings of the Augustan Rule in Egypt’  

62. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strabo (particularly in his 17th book); English translation available here: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/R … 17A1*.htmlSlide70