Tag Archives: Oromos

The Yet Untold Truth of Ancient Egypt: Africans’ Best Path to Identity, Integrity and Spirituality

From my correspondence with an African American willing to undertake studies in Egyptology in order to contribute to the his community’s need of cultural and spiritual betterment.

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Edfu Temple of Horus

============= FIRST LETTER ============

 

Пятница, 3 ноября 2017, 20:43 +02:00 от K P <xxxx@xxx.edu>:

Dr. Megalommatis,

As an African American, I would like to focus on the culture of Ancient Kemet. I want to use aspects of Ancient Kemet culture in a modern sense to uplift the self-esteem and perspectives of my community. I believe history repeats itself and we can learn from it to modify the present to shape the future for the better. African American community in the USA is in dire need of an economic, cultural, spiritual, and worldview revolution that is African centered. I know I must learn the mdu ntr to be able to interpret the culture more accurately as well. Thank you again, Dr. Megalommatis.

Best,

K P

(titles)

============ FIRST RESPONSE ============= 

Dear Sir

Thank you for your interest and letter!
You are right in using the real name of Ancient Egypt (Kemet), and even more so in searching in one of the world’s two oldest civilizations (the other being Sumer, Akkad, Assyria & Babylonia in Mesopotamia) the spiritual – moral – cultural – societal elements that could save today’s fallen world from final annihilation.

I have always been convinced that what one does matters not; what truly matters is the totality of the conditions and the circumstances under which one does what he does.

Your statement about history repeating itself and about the necessity to learn from it – and for the purpose that you state – can be co-signed by practically speaking everyone – even those who would wish to kill you!

Why do then so opposite elements agree on this?

 

1. Real History and Fake History made of Personal Concepts, Principles, Ideas, Theories, Thoughts, Feelings and Desires onto History

 

Because when trying to learn from History, most of the people, who try to do so, do not really do so, because they project onto History their prefab concepts, principles, ideas, theories, thoughts, feelings and desires. Then, they don’t learn History itself, but the version of History that pleases them and which drives them of course to failure – the failure that you see around you in the US and worldwide.

 

To truly learn History, one must be ready to drastically and resolutely reject what he likes, what he knows, what he loves, what he believes, and what he desires.

 

The first and worst obstacle in the path of one person willing to truly learn the real History (and not the silly version that pleases him and thus destroys him) is today’s overwhelming materialism.

 

Do not think that this evil, villainous and criminal materialism is limited only among self-declared materialists, atheists, communists and consumerists! It is omnipresent and prevalent also among all the people who say they are religious, whatever their religion may be.

 

Of course, as you already know, there has never been one single religion in the world that tolerated / accepted materialism of any form. How now have the followers of all religions become distorted and compact materialists?

 

That’s simple: over the span of the last 500 years, all the religions (with the exception of those of few – lucky – remote societies that remained untouched from technology and political developments, like some Oromos of Eastern Africa and few others) underwent the final stage of their corruption and they progressively became totally fake, dead systems that their founders and their earlier believers, before 500 or 1000 or 2000 years, would vehemently reject, if they came back to life today.

 

Yes, it is very correct; nothing can be expected from all the so-called religions of today, except their official Act of Death Certificate.

What will this Act of Death Certificate be like?

 

2. Today’s Fake, Materialistic Religions & Spiritual Omnipotence

This will be precisely an evident demonstration of Spirituality, which has always been the focal part of all religions, and …. of which today’s fake religions are totally, irrevocably, and lamentably deprived.

 

Yes, medu netsher (both, the writing and the sound of the Ancient Egyptian language) will greatly help you access original sources. You must then study them carefully and systematically.

 

But ……….

 

There is no guarantee that you will understand their real meaning, if you – like most of the Egyptologists of the last two centuries – project onto them your belief, your Weltanschauung, your background, and your thoughts, feelings and desires. You, in parallel with your studies, must clean yourself from all this stuff.

 

Contrarily to opposite theories and pathetic assumptions, there was none else but the Ancient Egyptians who before more than 4500 years built the great pyramid. It was a definitely easy task.

How?

They did not carry the burden of thoughts, emotions and desires that makes all of us collapse now and be heavier and therefore weaker and unfit for that simple task. Edward Leedskalnin proved this already with his great work; why don’t you visit his masterpiece which is open to the public, since you live in the US?

Only compact, villainous and Satanic materialism distorts the minds of the people and makes them unable to realize that the Man that God (or Gods – there is no difference; it’s the same!) created was not the fallen trash of today, but greatly capacitated in ways so miraculous that no one today would believe. That’s why it was easy for the Ancient Egyptians before 4500 years – despite the(ir) original fall / sin and expulsion from the Paradise – to perform the tasks needed for the erection of a monument and for many other today incredible tasks.

But I am digressing.

You say that the African American community in the USA is in dire need of a multifaceted revolution ….. that is ‘African centered’.

 

3. Identity and Integrity

I fully understand your need and your drive for identity and integrity; I respect it.

But do you really believe that the present continents existed before the Flood, which took place after the erection of the great pyramids?

Did the Ancient Egyptians call their land a ‘part of Africa’?

Do you really believe that there were ‘black skin’ and ‘white skin’ and ‘red skin’ and ‘yellow skin’ before the Flood?

We are all the children of the same father.

And are only African Americans those who are today in “dire need” of a multifaceted ‘revolution’ that I should rather call ‘alternation’ and ‘return of the Spirituality’?

All men are indeed in dire spiritual need – worldwide.

And is it the humans or the Spiritual Realm that arranges who leads and who follows this – much needed for all – alternation?

That’s why you must not view your effort as limited only within the circle of your community.

Perhaps your community will have to lead the world.

It is then a universal effort.

This (: the decision about who leads and who follows) is not something that humans can arrange; it is already difficult for us to comprehend the will of the Divine.

I am willing to discuss with you these issues in the depth and the width that you may wish.

……………………………………………

4. Being & Becoming / Being & Non-being

Who knows? We may have met in the distant past, if it truly exists! I say so, because for many (and for the Ancient Egyptians) there is no time at all. Everything is an eternal recapitulation under different forms.

That’s why Being and Becoming were for the venerable Kemet people the two axes of the Existence always in indissoluble unity and in absolute independence.

khepri-tomb-nefertari.jpg

And out of the wisdom of the Five Elements, they realized that Being and Non-being (or Nothingness) were the two axes of the Creation. 

KHEPRI 1.jpg

Do you know the Brethren of Purity? 300 years after the Prophet Muhammad they lived in Basrah (South Iraq) and they reinstated the reality that Being is merely an emanation of forms – exactly like the Ancient Egyptians knew 3400-3600 years before the times of those Muslims. Did these Brethren live in Asia, in Africa? Were they Black, White, Red, Yellow?

Khepri Scarab.png

Where to find the best explanation of the spiritual – material process of the emanation of forms?

Only modern criminal gangsters, impersonating the ‘Egyptologists’, dared malignantly and malefically ‘translate’ the Holy Texts rw nw prt m hrw (The Book of Coming Forth into Light) as ‘book of the dead’.

Nun & Khepri.jpg

This happened because most probably those ‘Egyptologists’ were already dead (while they appeared as alive) and wanted the entire mankind to be dead.

That’s why Jesus was right saying ‘Let the dead bury their own dead, but you go and proclaim the kingdom of God’.

 

5. The Kingdom of Heaven: Personal Transformation into Ethereal Body

Even this sentence of Jesus was translated erroneously, because the ‘Kingdom of Heaven’ as term is conveniently vague and unclear.

In Greek, Βασιλεία των Ουρανών (Vasilia ton Uranon) means ‘the kingdom of the skies’, but in reality it means ‘the Kingdom of Ether’ or ‘the Prevalence of Ether’, i.e. ‘the ability (of one human) to act (or prevail) at the ethereal level’. This involves a higher spiritual proceeding (or exercise, if you want) in which the human manages to achieve the full elimination of the other four elements (Soft Waters, Air, Earth, and Salted Waters) at the very material level of his own body.

This proceeding is tantamount to absolute personal control of one’s own Ether and subsequently to complete transformation of one’s body (which is made of five elements) into a material body made of purely Ether. This is achieved through abstinence, imagination, fasting, prayer, and meditation, i.e. faith!

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Best,

Shamsaddin

============== SECOND LETTER ==============

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Понедельник, 6 ноября 2017, 6:07 +02:00 от K P <xxxx@xxx.edu>:

Dr. Megalommatis,

Thank you, for you in-depth response. You have much knowledge and wisdom. I am willing and open minded person on a journey to seek truth and knowledge. I would be honored to learn from you.

………………………………………………

I believe in paying respect to Nature and the honorable Ancestresses and Ancestors who sacrificed so much for future generations.

………………………………………………

Kemet is my passion and something I have been studying for the last decade on my own. I really want to dedicated my life to study the culture and history of Kemet.

Thank you again for your willingness to even hear me out and take time to respond to me.

Best,

K P

(titles)

============= SECOND RESPONSE ========

Dear Sir,
Thank you for your response ….. !

I have been in the States several times back in the 60s and the 70s (with my parents) and in the 80s.  ……………

I know that the first foreign language that Americans have the tendency to learn is Spanish, and this is normal due to the vicinity of the Hispanophone world.

 

6. Important languages for Egyptological Bibliography

However, when it comes to Orientalism, Egyptology and African Studies, Spanish is of lesser importance, because only recently Spanish specialists delved into the different branches of Humanities that focus on Asia and Africa.

More particularly about Egyptology, the main languages that one must learn in order to have access to the enormous modern bibliography are: French, German, English, Italian and Russian. Even before 1850, there were chairs of Egyptology across today’s Italy (which was not one country at the time), but a Spanish Egyptologist is something that comes with the 2nd half of the 20th c.

You can’t therefore compare Italy to Spain when it comes to Egyptology; the latter is an academic dwarf, and the former a giant. And I don’t even mention the still colonized countries south of the US. Not one of them was allowed to develop Orientalist departments. The worst case of all is the fake country Brazil whereby archaeological excavations have been prohibited by law for the entire coastal zone and for a 50 km distance. You may want to ask why; the answer is simple. Numerous archaeological teams would excavate more Ancient Phoenician, Carthaginian and Egyptian antiquities than those unearthed in today’s Lebanon, Tunisia, Algeria, Libya and Egypt. Hundreds of temples! Thousands of inscriptions! As a matter of fact, History as ‘officially’ taught is a well-orchestrated, total fallacy.

I would say that for Egyptology, the three languages, namely French, German and English, are the minimum.

Some other European countries do indeed offer departments of Egyptology in their universities, so Dutch, Danish, Polish, Czech, Hungarian, Swedish and Finnish can also help. Of all the other countries of the world, only Japan, Israel, Egypt and Sudan have specialized departments of Egyptology, so Japanese, Modern Hebrew and Modern Arabic can be useful too though to lesser extent.

I believe that the first thing you have to do is to find where close to your place you can find a university with a dept. of Egyptology or Ancient Near East.

Would it be possible for you to pursue two curricula at the same time?

…………………………………………………..

From now on, you can also set your own targets and start reading about Ancient Egypt. In this regard, I could come up with suggestions, if you let me know your very specific interests in the matter.

But I have to warn you from now!!!!

 

7. Hindrances in the Path of Studying the Oriental Past

Reading is one thing and truly learning is a totally different thing.

 

The world is filled with people who read much during their entire lives and still learned nothing or almost nothing; this is valid indeed for professional Egyptologists who teach in different universities across the Earth.

 

In this regard, you will surely face (like everybody else) two major obstacles:

 

First, if you compare today’s scholars to those of the 19th c. – early 20th c. academics, you will realize that there are almost no pioneers anymore. There are few real explorers; most of today’s specialists lose their main topic’s overview because of their over-specialization. They think that ‘academic achievement’ must be sought only in the specific, far-fetched detail that was not noticed before and not in 1) a fresh interpretation of the material record or 2) a new standpoint / look over their topic. Today’s academics became conventional administrators and the disciplines of Humanities look rather like divisions of a ministry whereby no particular initiative is tolerated if coming from the bottom or the outside, and not from the top. In other words, today’s university staffers look like Chinese Mandarins who care only for the preservation of an enormous bureaucracy. Quite unfortunately, wherever bureaucracy starts, Humanities go extinct, civilization collapses, and societies disintegrate.

 

Second, and even worse, the 19th c. Western European search for Ancient Egypt and the subsequent birth of Egyptology were flawed since Day 1. The same happened to every other Orientalist discipline. Egyptology, as a matter of fact, is an Orientalist branch, like Assyriology, Hittitology, Iranology, Hindology, Sinology, etc. Quite unfortunately, even before sailing to Somalia, India, Egypt and other parts of the Orient (Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe), Western Europeans – academia, explorers, diplomats, agents and adventurers – had a very wrong, preconceived idea (and every preconceived idea is wrong) about the Orient.

 

8. The Divide ‘Orient vs. Occident’ is a Fake!

What is even worse is that they also viewed the entire world as a divide between the Occident and the Orient (West and East). which is preposterous and cannot be accepted as world understanding among those days’ Western Europeans, because they had not yet traveled, explored and studied the world – so they were expected not to form any idea in advance.

Even worse, those who traveled and explored parts of the Orient proved only to be the victims of their own preconceived ideas and schemes, of their own sources {Ancient Greeks and Romans understood the Orient only too little too late – because when Greece and Rome were formed as civilizations, the Orient (Mesopotamia, Egypt, Anatolia, Canaan) had already and for much time entered into a long phase of decadence}, and of the image of Orient they had shaped when back home. To add perjury to infamy, the early Orientalists projected their vision of the Orient onto the real, non-imaginative Orient that they visited and which – too bad for them and for us – they failed to even see!

The above mentioned grave trouble continued from generation to generation of scholars, and the system was reproduced down to our days. Few were perspicacious enough to spot the terrible problem and describe it to the extent that they realized. Edward Said was one of the these few scholars. I don’t know to what extent you are familiar with this scholar and intellectual, and whether you read his illustrious book ‘Orientalism’. This is a must read. It is an essential tool in understanding how critically you must stand toward modern egyptological publications.

Bear in mind that this inherent Western European effort to see the Orient as degraded (and therefore posterior and lower than the Occident) was later transferred to America – a country that gradually moved away from its clearly and overtly anti-colonial foundations only to become a nasty replica of Western European colonialism at all levels. It goes without saying that the aforementioned academic / intellectual standpoint (that can be categorized as ‘racist’ even when it does not concern one specific races but the entire Non-Western World) fully corresponded to the imperial plans of the Western European imperialist countries against the Oriental World which they misrepresented viciously even at the very simple level of … country names.

 

9. Orientalism – An Invention to Destroy the Oriental States

A friend reminded me yesterday of the fact that the Americans used to call the USSR (Soviet Union) …. Russia!

That was true, but the origin of the distortion is not American; on the contrary, it is French and English; for centuries, the criminal Western European colonial elites used to call
– the Ottoman Empire (i.e. the Islamic Caliphate) ……. Turkey
– the Safavid / Qajar Empire of Iran ………………………. Persia
– the Empire of the Great Mongols ……………………….. India

So, while studying Ancient Egypt, you have to predispose yourself in a way to undergo an initiation – that of your own.

While studying, you will have to reject many times what you earlier learned in order to adjust your mind to clearer or plainer truth.

 

10. Access to Truth is possible only through Initiation

The Truth all and at once is for God alone. Forget it! Even if one person knows it, he cannot transfer the knowledge to you, because humans are not computers whereby 1000 data can be transferred from one to another. The depth, the width, the height, the color, the tone and the feeling of the understanding differ from person to person, because there is no fabrication or machination or evolution of humans.

In this manner, even if someone had told you the totality of the Truth, this would have been totally useless to you, because you would not have been able to understand it beyond the simple and low level of a mere narrative.

Acquisition of real knowledge, access to truth, and aspiration wisdom are purely personal processes, involving initiation and many other methods and approaches, academic and spiritual.

Sunrise_at_Creation.jpg

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A point of great interest for you would be Waaqeffannaa, the monotheistic traditional religion of the Oromos of Eastern Africa; it does indeed contain many elements of original Ancient Egyptian religion, world view, and ethics.
Here you have an introductory approach:
http://www.waaqeffannaa.com/waaqeffannaa/waaqeffannaa-the-african-traditional-faith-system/

I published several articles, pinpointing the similarities between the two systems and explaining the survival of Ancient Egyptian beliefs and rituals down to our days.

There is also another point that I have to highlight to you.

 

11. Studying History is tantamount to Exploring the Fall of the Man

At any moment of your search and path, you must keep this very clear in your mind! The study of Ancient Egypt (and the study of Ancient Orient) is the study of a Fall – the Fall of the Man.

The Fall was never due to anything else except the fight between the Good and Evil at all levels. All Ancient Egyptian Myths are not ‘myths’ (as the word means today) but the Foremost Narrative of the Supreme Truth, i.e. what the highest among the humans contemplated out of the Spiritual World. And this supreme truth is the diachronic battle between the Good and Evil, in all its details that concern their and our past, their and our present, and their and our future, which for the Ancient Egyptian High Priests and Hierophants was just an infinitesimal second because time does not exist in itself.

You will therefore face always the same motive:

In every later period, in every more recent epoch, the top of the wise people and the spiritual leaders, who sided with God and opposed Evil, knew that they were ‘lower’ that they had fallen (comparatively with the earlier stage) and that, because of this, they had lost in terms of clarity and of understanding of the Myth.

 

12. Ancient Oriental Myth: the Foremost Narrative of the Supreme Truth

This means that the same text of an Ancient Egyptian Myth was understood differently in moments like 2600 BCE, 1450 BCE, 650 BCE and 100 CE. And in every later period, ‘differently’ means ‘lower’.

We even find many attempts to reconstruct the myth, to recapture the earlier meaning (which was lost), and to return to a higher understanding.

The effort was spread among other people who moved to and settled in Egypt: Phoenicians, Kushites from the Sudan, Aramaeans, Berbers, Palestinians, Hebrews, Carians, Lydians, Greeks and Romans.

This effort was overwhelming among the Gnostic systems, the Gnosticisms of the Late Antiquity. Many different schools were then formed and picked up different Ancient Egyptian myths and tried to reconstruct them – even out of the structure and the context of the then decayed Egyptian religion, which although in fall and decomposition influenced Romans, Illyrians, Dacians, Greeks, Celts and many European nations within and out of the Roman Empire.

The above is key to our effort of reconstruction.

These topics are difficult, and many modern schools of mystics think that what they do now was also done among Gnostics in Ancient Egypt! Well, things did not happen that way, but never mind! Modern schools of mystics fail to understand that the spiritual exercises, methods and contemplations of the Late Antiquity Gnostics were already a failed effort to understand and reconstruct Ancient Egyptian and Babylonian Mysticism, Spirituality and Transcendental Wisdom.

Modern schools of mystics fail to realize that the fundamentals of the Late Antiquity Gnostics’ Royal Art were distorted and misplaced, and as such they prevent them from achieving again (as they had wished) the authenticity of Egyptian and Babylonian Antediluvian Spirituality and the ensuing absolute spiritual potency. In fact, living in the times of Late Antiquity, Jesus evidently showed another path for the recapture of Human Originality.

Perhaps, due to the above, later periods of the Oriental Antiquity will be more difficult for you to understand, but who said that easy tasks ever matter?

 

13. African Spiritual Originality and Black Panthers

Black Panthers were right in their demands, but they failed to understand three points:

– what was done against Africans in America was decided not in America but elsewhere; even worse, it was envisioned by others, before the inception of the US.

 

– on present US territory, the worst and cruelest persecution did not indeed take place against black-skinned people, but against red-skinned people (: the ‘American Indians’). Failing to admit this reality, to repent for the atrocious crimes committed against the sole owners of the territories present occupied by the US, and to carry out the ensuing tasks is a crime and a disgrace.

– hatred, rancor, rage and revenge are all expressions of evilness; for any simple Ancient Egyptian, if you asked him or her about Seth (Satan) and his manifestation at the material level, it would be easy to tell you that ‘Seth is rage’. Any person expressing rage is invaded by Seth. This may at times bring damage to an opponent, but in fact rage destroys the person that harbors it. On the contrary, millennia before the Biblical figures, Jesus and Muhammad, the Ancient Egyptians knew that Creation – and therefore Prevalence – is tantamount to Love. And Man was created with the purpose to create.

Please, do not misread me! I don’t mean what most of today’s people think that Love is; no sex, no personal feeling involved – at all. In reality, people today have no idea what Love is and can’t even imagine what Faith is; and what they call love is not Love, and what they imagine as faith is not Faith!

But Love is as strong as Death; and what Death destroys Love can bring back in force again.

Closing my response, I have to remind you of another Ancient Egyptian concept. Man was created as a King; therefore royalty is the supreme value of all humans, but again it is not what most believe today. And there are not kings left anymore among those who sit today on thrones or pretend to do so. But there are in our times many kings who are not known to the rest. But they are known to Primordial Atum, and this is quite enough.

As you see, the rediscovery and the recapture of the original meaning of many key words of our present vocabularies is also part of the effort to reconstitute Ancient Egypt in our minds and hearts. Egyptologists study Hieroglyphics, read ancient texts, translate correctly, render Meriamon  as “Beloved by Amun”, and think they know, whereas they fail to capture the real meaning of that Ancient Egyptian name.

Best,
Shamsaddin

============== THIRD LETTER ==============

Dr. Megalommatis,

………………………………………….

The era I want to mainly focus on in Kemet is the Founding Father Narmer and the 1st Dynasty. I have many questions about this Great Man and his successors. I want to learn where did they draw upon knowledge from?

And what drew Narmer to say it is time to unite the two lands and take on the Scorpion King for Kingship?

Did the Stars play a role in his decisions?

I would love to commit the rest of my life to the true study and understanding of Kemet.

……………………………………………..

============= THIRD RESPONSE =============

My dear friend,

You ask difficult points that ordinary Egyptologists would have hard time to answer! Let’s take them one by one!

 

14. Narmer: the First Pharaoh

What is known of the first Pharaoh of the 1st dynasty?

Just one brief inscription on his commemorative ‘palette’ and few other artifacts! Plus an overwhelming and catastrophic desire of colonial Orientalists to project onto Narmer’s times the political needs of their own times; this is tantamount to an enormous volume of misplaced modern bibliography. One must go however through it, keeping himself clean and uninfluenced.

693px-narmer_palette_smiting_side.jpg

Archaeological data from Narmer’s times are unearthed, but Egyptologists have the tendency to mostly associate them with earlier periods and the Neolithic, viewing only material culture continuity. Focusing on the material culture, they fail to detect the enormous spiritual, mental and intellectual endeavors that were surely undertaken at those times, and not to the benefit of anyone. By this, I mean the emergence of the Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic writing.

Narmer_Palette_serpopard_side.jpg

 

15. The Hieroglyphs

One thing we can all agree upon is that writing in Egypt appeared at the times of Narmer. But few historians have made the necessary comparisons between Mesopotamia and Egypt at the end of the 4th and the beginning of the 3rd millennium BCE.

Yet, there is a tremendous difference which is quite telling! In Mesopotamia, namely Sumer and Elam, two different systems of writing appear few hundreds of years before Narmer, around 3250 BCE. These are the very early forms of the Cuneiform Writing; in the beginning, both Mesopotamian writing systems were ideogrammatic, and only after several stages of transformation and adaptation to practical needs, they took the typical, early 3rd millennium, cuneiform shape. The practice of writing and the material on which they wrote were successively adjusted. Each sign, each ideogram took therefore many different forms, before becoming a typical 3rd millennium Sumerian or Elamite ideogram, and then later a cuneiform sign.

But in Egypt, everything was very different. The Hieroglyphic writing system appears to have been first conceived, studied in almost all its aspects, details and design needs, developed, and then publicly used and diffused, never to be adapted to any later practical needs. The same Egyptian hieroglyphic signs remained intact for almost 3400 years!

Of course, the hieroglyphs are ideograms (a more modern attempt is to call them logograms, but it does not change much); the word comes out of the Ancient Greek term ιεροί γλύφοι / hieroi glyfoi (in Plural) which means ‘the sacred glyphs’. From their earliest appearance at the times of Narmer and his successors, the hieroglyphic signs did not change at all for millennia! But were the hieroglyphs holy or unholy?

It is only 1000 years after Narmer that we find the first evidence of the Ancient Egyptian Hieratic writing, which is a cursive form of the Hieroglyphic writing and which was basically used in drafts, on papyri, ostraca, etc. However, on architectural surfaces, we always attest only hieroglyphic writing.

Such is the nature and the scope of the hieroglyphic writing that it is difficult for anyone to assume that it was the product of a intellectual endeavor undertaken during a brief period of time or by one person or by very few people. Even more importantly, the entire Ancient Egyptian Weltanschauung in its entirety seems to be found in this writing all at once, and this appears at the times of Narmer. With my previous sentence I mean that the inception of the hieroglyphic writing, far beyond of being merely a writing system, is mainly the solemn declaration of a fundamental ideology, theory, and worldview that marked the world like no other theoretical or intellectual system.

 

16. Hieroglyphic Writing: the World’s Foremost Theory, Ideology and Weltanschauung that impacted the Mankind like no other system

Without the Hieroglyphic Writing, there would never be Egyptian Art (Painting, Sculpture) as we know it, because the art forms are in reality hieroglyphic signs that are personified as per each case.

Without Hieroglyphic Writing, there would not be any idols, icons, and representations elaborated for either religious or artistic purposes.

Without Hieroglyphic Writing, there would not be Greek civilization, Roman civilization, Christian civilization, Islamic civilization, Western civilization and Modern ‘civilization’.

Without Hieroglyphic Writing, the three driving forces of the Modern Western World and the Modern World in its entirety, namely the Jesuits, the Freemasons and the Zionists, would never come to existence.

The invention of the Hieroglyphic writing is not the equivalent of the simple and low process of formulating an easy writing system like an alphabet. The Hieroglyphs are the foundation of the Universal Theory and Ideology of Image / Idol. All the signs are ‘images’ or at least are thought to be so.

In fact, no idolatry would ever occur and no need for representation, painting, sculpture, architecture, theater, photograph and cinema would ever exist without the Founding Fathers of the Hieroglyphs, all those deviate and misfortunate magistrates who thought it possible for ‘representation’ to ever exist within the material world.

The colossal task must therefore have been the result of the work of an early college of priests and spiritual potentates. But which one? The Hermupolitan, the Heliopolitan or the Memphitic priesthood? We will probably never know for sure. And yet, this would be of great importance! However, we have the tendency to ascribe the gigantic undertaking that impacted the world like no other system, theory or ideology to the Memphitic priesthood, its earliest form or its predecessors.

 

17. Hieroglyphic Writing: at the antipodes of the Ancient Egyptian Spirituality

On the other side, the unified field of semiotics that are the Images – Elements of the Hieroglyphic Writing was obviously at the antipodes of the cardinal points of the Ancient Egyptian Spirituality, according to which – and similarly with the Sumerians, the Assyrians and the Babylonians in Mesopotamia – “as above so below”. As a matter of fact, “as above so below” means that the only representation that can exist is the material world itself; it is indeed the representation of the spiritual world. So, this is the Order of the Creation.

Since every item of the material world is the living representation, the reflection and the mirror of its spiritual counterpart, any attempt to fabricate another representation, a fake image within the material world, is an act of counterfeit creation, and as such an abominable deed full of blasphemy and sacrilege.

And this reality (that the hieroglyphs are a form of creation) would be utterly confessed by all Ancient Egyptian priests, scribes, architects and artists; it is actually very well documented. They believed that the hieroglyphic signs, carved as bas-reliefs on the walls of their temples or painted on the walls of tomb chambers, ceaselessly emitted their energy across the material universe.

– What were the Ancient Egyptian temples the architectural structure of which remained unchanged for more than 3000 years?

– A micrography, a miniature of the Universe.

So, covering the miniature of the Universe with signs that emitted their energy and electromagnetic fluids across the universe was indeed an act of Black Magic and an evil effort to alter the Creation and hinder its purpose.

 

18. Spiritual conflicts, religious wars, theological polarizations

In fact, Ancient Egyptian History was the result of a ceaseless fight among the aforementioned three priesthoods. Only around the middle of the 2nd millennium, the Theban clergy emerged in the South; although totally distinct, Theban theology appears to be the next stage of the old Memphitic system and as the world’s earliest Trinity.

So, if we were able to fully and accurately identify which priesthood invented the Hieroglyphic writing, we would manage to have a superior understanding of the Ancient Egyptian civilization. This is so because the Egyptian royal ideology and spirituality seems to have been composed by the opponents of the priesthood that launched the hieroglyphic writing, after elaborating the theoretical background that supported its invention.

What was Narmer’s role in relation with the priesthoods?

Calling him a ‘Father’ and a ‘Great Man’ will only prevent you from getting an accurate understanding of who he was and of how important he was. You can never project your thoughts, feelings and desires onto a historical subject and then hope to ever be able to understand it. You will never manage to do so. History is frozenly cold; it is totally void of thoughts, feelings and desires. You find all the true events that occurred worldwide only beyond the level of – 274 Celsius. Am I understood in this?

History is an interminable process of acts. Acts have no thoughts, no feelings, and no desires. The persons who carry out these acts do have indeed thoughts, feelings and desires; but these are their mistakes and their sins, and their reason of failure. Do not add your mistake to theirs!

Narmer appears indeed as a mighty warrior and a determined fighter leading an early, miniscule army to battles. At those times, there were almost no armies and no battles. With so limited numbers of ‘soldiers’ (the term is even improper; these were rural laborers, who only paused their daily work for few days or weeks in order to participate in the skirmishes or the expeditions needed), you understand that those military bodies were embryonic.

As a warrior and fighter, Narmer has little chance to possibly be the powerful figure that you imagine and you attempt to venerate. In rare cases, kings and emperors led their armies, engaging in front battles, and when back in their capitals, they acted as high priests, spent time in their libraries, and were versed in spiritual exercises, intellectual endeavors, and academic – educational affairs. This combination of diverse activities is not impossible, but these emperors were truly very few, and they seem to have been common only in the civilizations peak. But Narmer was not a Thutmose III, a Ramses III or a Psamtik (Psammetichus)!

Materialist or senseless Orientalists interpret the emergence of the early states and the appearance of the first armies as mere responses to the material and the economic needs of the inhabitants of a certain land. Little do these Orientalists care about the spiritual and intellectual, cultural and religious concerns, activities and convictions of those people!

There is an undisputed reality; a battle and a war denote the existence of a certain problem, namely that of weakness and impotency. Otherwise, Narmer and his successors could solve their problems, utilizing their spiritual force and avoiding wars and fights. Worse, even his high priests and hierophants could not achieve something in this direction, and they wanted him to fight and engage in battles.

It is true that, across three millennia of Ancient Egyptian History, sometimes few Pharaohs used their spiritual resources against enemies whose material / physical strength was not a match for the spiritual force of the Egyptian high priests. Ramses III and his terrible land and sea battles against the Sea Peoples were an example at the very crepuscule of the Egyptian spiritual might.

During the battle, they called upon their spiritual force and duly expressed it, thus causing immediate disarray in the enemy lines. The Annals of Ramses III, sculpted on the walls of his mortuary temple at Medinet Habu (Western Thebes, Luxor) bear witness to this fact. But the spiritual power of the early times had gone.

Pylon-of-Medinet-Habu-Temple.jpg

Medinet Habu – Mortuary temple of Ramses III

We don’t have similar textual references, when it comes to the various skirmishes of the early dynasties’ ‘armies’ and to all the battles during the entire period of the Old Egyptian Kingdom.

On the other hand, as a pharaoh, Narmer must have had the complete series of five names that each pharaoh was invested with since the day of his coronation. We don’t have full five names for all the early pharaohs, but the prevailing sense of continuity and traditionalism makes us believe that Narmer too must have had five, divine and royal, names.

This suggests automatically that he was also viewed as living Horus when alive in the material world and as living Osiris when in the Nether World. The divinity of the Egyptian Pharaoh was the undisputed cornerstone of the Egyptian royalty for millennia. Contrarily, the Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, Babylonian, Hittite and Elamite kings or Emperors were humans blessed by the Divine Powers, elected by God or Sons of God, but never Gods.

 

19. Royal Ideology – determined by the Heliopolitan priesthood

With every Pharaoh recapitulating the Heliopolitan dogma (of which Osiris and Horus were two of its foremost elements), we realize that the Egyptian royal ideology was always controlled by the Heliopolitan priests. But how early was Heliopolis (Iwnw in Ancient Egyptian) instituted as a venerated center that shaped part of the local History?

iennead.jpg

Heliopolitan Ennead

Did it exist at the times of Narmer in the form which made it known in the 2nd half of the 3rd and during the 2nd millennium? We don’t know. If not, where was located its predecessor and earlier form?

iosiris.jpg

Osiris

Was it Henen Nesut? Possibly. Its name means the House of the Royal Child, and this represents already an element of the Heliopolitan theology, as Horus was at times viewed as Hor pa hered, which became more widely known after its deformation to Harpocrates in Ancient Greek.

When the Greeks visited Egypt and heard the local stories, they called Henen Nesut Heracleopolis (i.e. the City of Hercules), which illuminates the divine nature of the location that was inhabited already before Narmer.

Was it Nekhen that the Greeks called Hierakon polis (‘the city of the hawks’) and which evidently existed for centuries before Narmer?

couples-of-the-Ogdoad.jpg

Hermupolitan Ogdoad

Was then the Heliopolitan royal ideology of Narmer in total disagreement or relative compromise with the theological system of the Memphitic priesthood that most probably invented the Hieroglyphics?

 

20. Egypt was never unified; it existed for millennia as ‘Tawy’ – the Two Lands

And was the federation of the two lands (Upper and Lower Egypt) by Narmer a necessity, a compromise or a victory for some and a defeat for others?

ptah.jpg

Ptah – main god of the Memphitic priesthood

I use the term ‘federation’, because this modern political practice better corresponds to what the royal practice was in Egypt during three millennia; the two countries never became one and they remained always two. There were never one Ancient Egyptian flag, one Ancient Egyptian emblem, and one Ancient Egyptian crown for the Pharaoh: there were two flags, two emblems and two crowns.

theban-triad.jpg

Theban trinity

But why the federation was launched we may never understand. Was it ‘good’ (positive) or ‘bad’ (negative)?

And how different was Narmer’s federal kingdom from the earlier smaller kingdoms at the level of royal ideology, spiritual leadership, and cultural background?

Were all of those small kingdoms before Narmer ruled under the earliest form of the Heliopolitan royal ideology or only some (or one) of them? This is difficult to answer.

Set speared Apep.jpg

Seth fights in favor of Horus and against Apophis.

There are several Ancient Egyptian stories that relate to the pre-dynastic period. But modern historians, after rejecting their own preferences and concepts, values and principles, world perception and background, must also reject those of the Ancient Egyptian scribes and of their mentors, namely of all those involved in the composition of these narratives. This must happen because they too projected their own preferences and concepts, values and principles, world perception and background onto the pre-dynastic period that antedated them by 200-400 years; they viewed in it not its pure reality but what they wanted to view, thus disfiguring and altering the true conditions of life that prevailed in that early and unknown period.

Only then, we will have a clearer understanding and an accurate evaluation of Narmer, his exploits, and his times. It was surely not an easy time.

3rd millennium BCE Egyptians used to see the times before Narmer as a chaotic period. But what does this really mean?

Most probably nothing. We know that there were strives, skirmishes and wars at the times of Narmer and his successors, and certainly in later periods, the wars only increased in number. So, shall we conclude that those periods were also times of chaos?

How objective can one be when he considers the lesser chaos as ‘worse’ than an extended and generalized chaos? It makes no sense.

All accounts made, anytime anywhere any Ancient Egyptian scribe, priest or high priest was the product of his times. All of them were subjective enough to project their mindset, values and interests onto earlier times, when describing them in rather short stories; and the same attitude continued unaltered down to our times. Those scribes and priests are therefore untrustworthy, like all the posterior historiographers, who repeated the early historians’ attitude. In fact, what we can find as reason for their attitude is an effort to ‘justify’ and to ‘beautify’ their own fall. In other words, they were confused enough not to see their fall as proper fall, but as an advancement and a progress.

wadi-es-wadi-essebua-ramesses-ii-offers-to-the-theban-triad.jpg

Temple of Wadi es Sebua – Ramses II offers to Theban trinity

And because they failed to accept that the earlier society without a king, and more particularly without a divine king, was better, they brought incessant disasters to themselves and their societies got disintegrated only for others to come to the forefront, but always at a lower level; and the age of the assured reciprocal and total nuclear annihilation is the very bottom of the entire process.

So, the proper response to your question “and what drew Narmer to say it is time to unite the two lands and take on the Scorpion King for Kingship?” is that Narmer was probably instructed to do so by the high priests of the temple where he belonged. Those high priests were in conflict with those who controlled other smaller states alongside the Nile; they therefore assumed that by controlling the lands of their opponents, they would prevail.

This is a very perilous assumption, for many times across History the winners at the military and material level became the prisoners of the spiritual choices advanced by their opponents. So, the early Heliopolitan priesthood, by using Narmer as a tool, prevailed over the early Memphitic clergy only to be subsequently held captive by the evil founding fathers of the Hieroglyphic Writing and of the Camp of Idols.

wadi-es-wadi-essebua-ramesses-ii-offers-to-the-theban-triad.jpg

Temple of Derr – Ramses II under the auspices of the Holy Tree offers to Ptah

Three millennia of Spiritual Captivity and Decadence is the only pertinent, yet brief, conclusion about Egypt’s real history.

The above are only few thoughts about the existing circles of interests and fields of exploration concerning the times of your beloved Narmer.

I terminate my response here, leaving your last two important questions (I want to learn where did they draw upon knowledge from? / Did the Stars play a role in his decisions?) for another time.

Best regards,

Shamsaddin

Philae.jpg

Philae Island – Aswan, Temple of Isis

Download the text in Pdf

The Yet Untold Truth of Ancient Egypt P

 

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About the Islamic Veil and the related False Dilemma & World Deception

From my last year’s correspondence with a London-based African Muslim Lady

 

Parts

I – About today’s Fake World

II – About today’s Prevailing Materialism and Total Lack of Spirituality

III – About the Global, Full, Deception

IV – About the Islamic Veil (Hejab)

V – About today’s desecrated, fake mosques

VI – Reminiscences from the war front between Iran and Iraq

 

Dear XXXX,

This letter will displease you – greatly! 

You may even consider me as a brutal and heartless person; and perhaps I am to some extent.

But if don’t tell you what I intend to, I will certainly be held as liar by God.

So, I definitely prefer that you view me as a heartless and brutal person than Allah holds me responsible for deliberately concealing reality and truth from you. 

The critical part comes at the end, but before that I will answer to your email.

Воскресенье, 10 апреля 2016, 22:03 +02:00 от xxxxxxx

 

Dear Prof S

 

Your Somali friend is right about it being on social media. It was sent bymy sibling who was sent the video (not link) via Facebook.

 

I – About today’s Fake World

 

I am afraid that, in a society mainly characterized by an extraordinary imposition of total deception and delusion, you have to be extremely attentive in order to avoid falling into the numerous traps that Freemasons and Zionists incessantly set up for the rest of the world and for one another – so, some of these traps are very sophisticated, because they are addressed against people who know the reality of the world 1000000 times better than you and others do.  

There is another show discussing this issue: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mIhTtbqkMNM


My goodness! This is a YT channel that does not show the number of its subscribers – probably because they are few. If you even check the views received on all of the channel’s views, you realize that they are between 2 and 3 million – only! This is next to nothing in the world of YT.

 

To give you an idea, my friend, who uploads many of many articles as videos (www.youtube.com/user/peiraiotis56) is a single person, not an entire community, and he is at the level of 5.3 million!

So, when you have this sort of YT channels set up by communities of Somalis, Oromos, Baluch, and any other, you have corruption. If someone pays US$ 50000 to any of them, asking for intriguing compromises that will not be easily discerned by many, they will cash the filthy, cursed money immediately.

Do not be criminally naive to believe that others are as good as you are or that they have a label “crook” on their front.

You only daydream and you do so self-calamitously, if you think that people, who suffered, lost their property, saw their relatives dead, and were persecuted, have still the strength to say ‘no’ to some little money, which is enough to buy them and thus turn them from ‘good’ to ‘evil’ – particularly if they live in the West and specifically in the US, the world’s most execrable materialistic tyranny.

The outright majority of all the Somalis, the Oromos, the Ogadenis and all the rest are bought up in profane manner and very often without them even understanding it. Things happen at times in a very subtle and concealed manner; the bribe is not always addressed to the concerned person but to wives, brothers, sisters, sons, daughters, friends or associates. They do the rest of the job. So, to imagine that there is a difference in evilness between George Soros and one of the aforementioned is either a tragic mistake or mental self-amputation. 

 

Unfortunately, the Somalis love to view political speeches of worthless people than look into real issues.


No, this is common to all. In a so-called ‘global’ society (the term is very fallacious by the way), all are affected. Except the privileged few who have the courage to incessantly and indiscriminately reject whatever comes from today’s world.

And this is the cataclysmic difference:
– any Somali in Minnesota belongs to ‘today’s world’, and
– any Somali in a remote village in Somalia, a person whose house has no electricity and whose family has no money, does NOT belong to ‘today’s world’ – but most probably he/she does not understand this reality, because to him/her ‘today’s world’ is virtually unknown.

I have attached the translation.


Thank you for your effort! 

Estakhfor Allah! You are an adult! You could understand the language; there are explicit indications of forgery. I will reveal them separately. You could understand them. 

You are right worse things are happening. My sister in law told me of poor people in Egypt who are taken off the street and falsely treated well (e.g. given bath, new clothes etc. and then taken somewhere to be harvested for their organs). Of course, we have also discussed the atrocities carried out by the Freemasons.


Yes, but I see that this was not enough.

 

II – About today’s Prevailing Materialism and Total Lack of Spirituality

The Somali community knows about this issue, since it has been discussed and rumored for many years. I think I mentioned a friend of my father who is now an old man, who finally disclosed to my father that on his voyage to the UK women were raped in front of him in Libya and he could do nothing. This was at the time of Qaddafi – imagine it must be 200% worse now.


With this and with all the aforementioned, you still fail to understand what the truly “worse things” (that have been and are still being carried out in this world) are.

As a matter of fact, your thought, mind, reactions, mindset, and attitude reveal – quite unfortunately – a consummate materialist whose concerns are limited within the material realm and focused on whether this person was unjustly slaughtered, the other person was secretively raped, the third person was illegally sold as slave, and another person was gravely injured and thus submitted to extreme (material) pain.

In whatever comes to your mind, there is nothing called ‘soul’, nothing related to the Spiritual Universe, nothing pertaining to the origin and the center of our existence – the Spiritual Order. Any person, who proceeds in your manner, successfully manages to keep him/herself far from the real essence of the problem; then, magnifying secondary aspects, that person fails to understand the origin of the problem and thus automatically becomes part of the problem. This tells me that, when the problem will be resolved, this person will vanish in the eternal fire that transforms the Being into the Non-being.

The foremost atrocity undertaken against the Mankind of our times is the disconnection of the material part of every human (i.e. the body and the mind) from his/her spiritual part, e.g. a tragic event due to which the complete fall of the mankind has been achieved in a way that today we are able to identify it with textual references to the world of Al Yom al Ahar (the End Times).

The persons, who were raped, tortured, amputated, killed and dishonored in any sense, had already been spiritually dead; before their exposure to the atrocities that so much fascinate you, they had been disconnected from their souls, they knew nothing about what their soul is, where it is, how it feels, what it does or can do, how they can reconnect with it, by what other spiritual beings their souls are surrounded, impacted, helped or endangered, what our destination in life is, to what extent our tasks and responsibilities hinge on our souls and on our re-connection with them, what other spiritual beings exist in the Spiritual Universe, how they are manifested in the material world, and – above all (which is what the filthy Satanic sheikhs of today’s cursed pseudo-Islam ignore) – what the price of our disconnection from our souls is.

This atrocity is zillions of times worse than the materialistic pictures and videos that you have provided me with and also zillions of times worse than your narratives about the execrable lives of unfortunate women, who happened to be relatives of any type to pseudo-Muslims whose character happens to be more barbaric than that of the wildest pig.

Not only the atrocity of the spiritual disconnection of the men is worse, more critical, more tragic, and more ominous than all the material atrocities of all times counted together, but it is the reason for them. In fact, it is the only real and irrevocable death of the humans. What you think as death, i.e. the separation of the soul from the body, is not death.

That’s why today’s soldiers fail to fight like the illustrious fighters who followed the Greatest African of the 19th and the 20th centuries, Mohammed Abdullah Hassan.

– Oh, if I were lucky enough to ride a horse, run behind him, and get engaged in one of his battles, even for only one minute, I would not need to live anymore in this world!

That’s why today’s politicians and statesmen fail to get the slightest portion of the magistrates and the officers who followed the Most Illustrious African of all times, Emperor Ahmed ibn Ibrahim in his epic battles against the Satanic Abyssinian cholera. No one can achieve today to emit from his face the light that dispersed the incestuous and evil Amhara and brought the armies of Somalia up to the sources of the Nile. Those were the fighters, who fearlessly crossed the most abominable and cursed part of the surface of the Earth, an arid and mountainous land that afflicts with evilness anyone who happens to cross or live in it – a territory that Allah will eliminate soon from the surface of the Earth and will return it to its place, i.e. the Nether World.

– Oh, if I were lucky enough to ride a horse, run behind him, and get engaged in one of his battles, even for only one second, this would be the greatest favor I can ask God.

Your thoughts, concerns and endeavors, as long as they are materialistic of purpose, have unfortunately only one result: they turn you into a part of the problem – a morally conscious part of the problem, but still part of the problem.

Yours is also a grave ignorance of the History of the Mankind. Similar situations (with the atrocities attested in the documents that you sent me) existed in many places and most of the times. Freemasons, Jesuits and Zionists used – for a period covering many millennia – to customarily kill children, women and men in ritualistic ceremonies offered in honor of fake deities that were all personifications of Satan.

Useless to add that they also used the organs of their victims and sacrifices in their ritualistic ceremonies! Only today’s ignorance and barbarism drives people into total darkness; an Ancient Egyptian and an Ancient Somali before 3500 years knew very well the different types of use – either blessed and positive or cursed and negative – that each organ of the human body can have. Similar details are abundant in the supreme texts of the Golden Era of Islam.

 

These texts are far more important than the currently useless Quran and the presently worthless Hadith that you cannot understand – except in the light of the texts that I insinuate and which you never read, because you don’t know. Yet, these texts are unknown to the uneducated, illiterate, trashy sheikhs and imams of today’s Islam. So barbaric, idiotic and pathetic they are that, if they come to know about these texts, they will immediately attempt to discredit them, because they will feel the danger that these leading texts of Supreme Human Wisdom herald a) their most demanded death and b) the disastrous end of today’s religious prostitution that is called ‘Islam’.

Only today’s worthless Mankind that cares about football, dance, night life, cars, races, sports in stadiums, free time in malls, sex, porno-videos, cinemas, expensive clothes, electrical appliances, luxurious properties, advanced technology in gadgets and mobiles, lavish vacations, etc. does not know that in Ancient Egypt, when they carried out the mummification process – and this was the matter for every deceased person -, they removed the organs, they did not throw them away, but separately placed them inside differently prepared vases that are called by today’s Egyptologists canopic vases.

Read now this basic reference https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canopic_jar

Look at what the Ancient Egyptians (and the Ancient Sudanese – and I have reason to believe that also the Ancient Somalis) did, while scrupulously working to complete a mummification process! In fact, the human body is the Supreme Architecture delivered by Allah. In and by itself, it constitutes a miniature of the Universe.

Of course, if one is stupid enough (like most of today’s fake Muslims) to believe that Einstein was an intelligent and well-educated professor (and not a vicious gangster, a repugnant criminal, and a filthy, profane liar aiming at besotting you personally and everyone else as well) or to think that the Earth is a Globe that revolves around the Sun, one will never achieve to get a small portion of the magnificence of the Ancient Intellect, which was far closer to the Eternal Truth than the decayed world in which you find yourself.

 

The article that your friend sent is also very revealing of the dire situation of all illegal African immigrants. It is ridiculous that they escape to Europe when the wealth of the world is dependent on the natural resources of Africa which has every precious gem and material on earth.


Very right indeed! I am glad to notice that you identified this critical point. It is quite telling.

 

III – About the Global, Full, Deception

You know I have nieces, and the video really upset me since under different circumstances that could easily have been us which reminds us of our responsibility to end this practice. 

 

Of course, we are human and feel sorrow for those who have been persecuted or abused, but Allah also granted us intellect, and we must think properly, correctly and creatively, and thus avoid being deceived.

 

You know, I have not finished the e-book you sent me a long while ago on ritual abuse. I know I must read it but I am not spiritually strong to go through it yet and I am concerned I will have many nightmares for quite some time.

 

Of course, you have to read Frabato, and complete the reading. Give it a priority! Later, I will suggest you further readings from Franz Bardon. 

I will read the descriptions of Egypt articles you sent me tomorrow. I read your articles (via the update you provided on your work uploading all those documents and videos). The one on the Brussels bombing was very precise and to the point and underscored the key elements of the issues we face. Of course, there is more detail, but for an absolute beginner the areas to focus on were very clear (1) Hanbal, (2) Taimiyah and (3) Abdulwahab and (4) introversion and (5) reductionism.

 

In all three cases of names, please do not forget the word ‘ibn’ before the names that you mention. Without it, the names are wrong, although most Muslims will understand you.

 

You know my sister told me of a Somali girl who appeared on Somali TV without a hijab, who was discussing the real problem of young Somalis being lured into gangs in Toronto. The comments focused on her not wearing a hijab rather than the real issue affecting he children of the people posting those ignorant comments.

 

Pathetic! In all cases, contents matter more than form! Typical case of reductionism – which is a most evil and inhuman ideology and behavioral system!

If a woman is raised to a level of respectability and nobility, hijab is meaningless.

This said, I must add that the issue is risky, because there are many traps in it; however, the traps are not inherent to the subject, but due to the external involvement and the unprecedented maneuvering and manipulation that took place in this regard.

 

In fact, the outright majority of those men, who demand of a woman today to wear hejab, are filthy criminal gangsters, infidel trash, ignorant and uneducated idiots, e.g. all those who bring forth the total destruction of Islam in a precipitated rhythm.

As I told you, the effectiveness of today’s world deception hinges mostly on the establishment of false debates or false dilemmas in every single case and issue. You must always have this in mind. It is the indispensable, structurally Satanic, element of the Zionist, Jesuit and Freemasonic lies and propaganda. 

 

Why is it ‘structurally Satanic’? Because Satan’s rebellion against God, as documented in any major literature and religion, particularly the ancient Oriental religions of the world’s greatest civilizations, was in itself a ‘false dilemma’! Of course, it was a dilemma first presented to himself and then to the spiritual hierarchies that he drew to precipitated fall. Useless to add that a false dilemma is the most sophisticated manner of rejection of Truth!

If the dilemma is ‘A or B’, and A is truly A and B is truly B, then those setting the dilemma in front you (Jesuits, Freemasons, Zionists, etc.) will have only a small chance to draw to their side the majority and to thus achieve their goal as per this subject / issue. If they manage to get it done in one case, it will take them too long and it will consume too much of energy. Last, it will not be sure that it will be achieved in the next subject / issue.

If now the dilemma is ‘A or B’, and A is truly A but B is misrepresented and, although you consider / see it as B, in reality it is -B or C, the chances of the deceivers to get it done (and cheat you) are stronger, because this is in real terms a confusion and not a dilemma. Nonetheless, with this situation, we have not yet reached the level of ‘false dilemma’ properly speaking.

However, if the dilemma is ‘A or B’, and A is in reality -A or Z and B is in reality -B or Y, then you most probably are lost and the deceivers will easily achieve their goal. This is now called ‘full deception’ (an accomplished false dilemma) and to oppose this, you need exceptional intellect, vast knowledge, moral integrity, and spiritual intuition. Few exceptional persons can outmaneuver this fabrication.

 

This is the nature of our world in almost every issue. 

 

IV – About the Islamic Veil (Hejab)

Back to hejab now! Ancient Assyrian and Egyptian, Sumerian and Hittite, Phoenician, Aramaean and Hebrew, Iranian, Greek, Indian, Chinese and Roman women wore either always or under different social circumstances various types of hejab. In pre-Biblical Antiquity, we know that the use of hejab was more widely spread in collapsed societies whereby pan-sexualism and pan-sexuality, immorality and perversion, corruption and materialism had already increased tremendously.

 

In later ages, Christian women wore hejab; Jewish, Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist, Confucian women did so too.

My grandmothers were both Christian Orthodox and they both wore forms of traditional Christian hejab covering most of their hair. This occurred as recently as the 1930s and the 1960s. To their viewpoint, an uncovered woman wearing a bathing suit and exposing her mostly uncovered body to the general public in the coasts and the beaches was certainly a ‘prostitute’ – perhaps not a professional prostitute but a viciously immoral trash.

 

Back in the 1950s and 1960s, perfidious distortions and pathetic lies were already systematically propagated without anyone opposing them; swimming would supposedly be very good for the health, sunbath would eventually guarantee longevity, etc., etc., etc. All these silly and nonsensical activities, which had never before been practiced within the context of any civilization, are cancerogenic indeed, and – which is even worse – absolutely calamitous for the spiritual and the physical health of the human being.

 

Then, the Christian Church was already corrupted from inside, having been infiltrated by Freemasons and Zionists (though to lesser extent than now), and only few marginal priests, who were low in the hierarchy, dared to oppose the scheme. As you can easily guess, they were easily discredited by the monstrous and criminal forgers.

As a matter of fact, only modernism crushed the Christian hejab, and this ominous development was quite recent.

Look now! Up to a certain point, the colonies (Egypt, Somalia, India, Cambodia, etc.) followed the colonial metropolises. This was very evident in the 1960s. Independent Somalia meant also uncovered women – not because there was a sociopolitical movement and activists promoting this policy, but because gradually under the Italians, the French and the English, the Somali society advanced on the path of early modernism.

And here comes the ominous false dilemma – on this subject.

Of course, the rejection the Christian (and Jewish) hejab in the West was not a one-step / one-stage movement. As a matter of fact, this rejection did not consist in an innocent concept. At the time, it was certainly marketed as a symbol of carefree life, as an acquisition of postwar peace and freedom, and as an indication of aesthetic concern; but you have to view all this literature as a sophisticated marketing campaign whereby the most atrocious was smoothly, gradually and systematically presented as quasi-divine.

 

From the moment of making the first step in the effort to remove the Christian hejab until the time one woman appeared ‘topless’ in the beach and nudist beaches started being organized in Freemasonry-/Zionism-controlled tyrannies of the West, many decades have passed. For the same scope, every few years, another immoral, paranoid, and worthless ‘innovation’ was being heralded; and everything was planned carefully and from the beginning, long before being executed in a multileveled effort involving art (cinema, TV, video, music), mass media, and other tools of corruption. The end target was what you see now in the West and what you will see in ten years’ time: profanation of the human body, pan-sexism, homosexual marriages, pedophilia, and incest. This is the first part of the false dilemma. Unveiled woman is here finally a consummate prostitute.

The second part of the false dilemma is the internal development that took place in the fake Muslim societies over the past five – six decades; if the Freemasons and the Zionists wanted it, the same evolution would take place in all the Muslim countries. But for different reasons, Freemasons and Zionists did not want it so. Consequently, they started promoting other situations and supporting different developments. By agreeing that civilized Egyptians, Sudanese, Somalis and other African Muslims go to the Hell of Satanic Arabia to …. “study Islam” (which was tantamount to an abomination), the evil colonial powers ensured that

 a) every remnant of civilization gradually but steadfastly disappears from every Muslim country and

 b) every remnant of Islamic faith gets progressively replaced by the filthy, Satanic theology which was prevailing in Saudi Arabia, i.e. the anti-Islamic, evil and inhuman pseudo-theories of Ibn Hanbal, Ibn Taimiya, and Ibn Abulwahhab.

 

At the same time, and for many successive decades, systematically the Freemasons, the Zionists, the Americans, the Europeans and others took great pain to show, through the world’s mass media that they controlled, a totally false image of the reality, misinterpreting the moderate political stance of Saudi Arabia, which however formed a tandem with the barbaric, backward, terrorist, extremist, radical and overall inhuman, religious education which was imposed across the Satanic realm in a most tyrannical manner and diffused to all the countries of Islam through the foreign ‘students’, who used to go to Barbaric, Satanic Arabia to get barbarized in the cruelest possible manner.

 

Like this, as second part of the false dilemma comes not the historical hejab (which existed often though not always across the Islamic World over the past 14 centuries), but the fake hejab of the successive reductionist evil dogmas of Ibn Hanbal – Ibn Taimiya – Abdulwahhab. This is, truly speaking, the anti-Islamic hejab of Barbarism, e.g. the foremost symbol of Women’s Slavery that the outright majority of the Satanic sheikhs, imams, muftis and qadis support.

 

For the imminent clash not to be averted, the vicious, Satanic Freemasons and Zionists deliberately accept as ‘Islamic’ the veil, whereas in reality

a) the veil has not been Islamic but Universal (it existed in almost all the ancient civilizations, as well as in the Hebrew Religion and in Christianity) and 

b) the veil never consisted in a rigid obligation of Muslim women – once (as I said in the beginning) a woman is raised to a level of respectability and nobility within the context of her civilized society.

 

And this is the truth of my words that the vicious mass media have always made a great effort to conceal; I will offer one example, but there are numerous.

 

Before exactly 179-178 years, the Scottish painter David Roberts traveled down the Nile up to the borders of Sudan and immortalized scenes of the places where he passed by. Here you can get general information about him: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Roberts_(painter)

He went as far as Abu Simbel at a time the great temples of Ramses II and his wife Nefertari were not excavated, but were still sunk in the desert sand (as they had been during most of the Late Antiquity already). David Roberts left impressive drawings of the location. In addition, he depicted many Nubian men and women from diverse places south of Aswan and up to the Sudanese border (few kilometers beyond Abu Simbel), i.e. Qertassi (Kardasy), Korti, Wadi as Sebua, etc.  

NubianWomenatKorti_ontheNile_zps42eaf934.jpg

Nubian women at Korti – by David Roberts. 1838-1839

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Nubian men and women at Qertassy (Kardassy) – by David Roberts. 1838-1839

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Abyssinian slaves at Korti – by David Roberts. 1838-1839

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Dancing girls in Cairo – by David Roberts. 1838-1839

See for yourself how much ‘uncovered’ or how much ‘covered’ these decent, moral, innocent, clean and impeccable Nubian women were. They were living far from the Satanic sheikhs of Wahhabism, and – thank God! – the filthy, villainous and inhuman teachings of the vicious heretics Ibn Hanbal and Ibn Taimiya had not yet reached their noble land.

 

To the Ottoman Caliphate, their region was a rather marginal circumference, and among the Nubians at the time, only a minimal impact was exercised by the vicious colonial slaves, i.e. the uneducated sheikhs of the worthless, fake Al Azhar mosque of 1840. The vicious, fake sheikhs of 1840 Al Azhar idiotically adjusted their trashy theology to the political orders of the time. They consciously served the villainous, dirty, criminal, anti-Islamic and anti-Egyptian needs of the profane, servile political class of vice-royal – khedival Egypt that was a Satanic tool of the Anglo-French Freemasonry and the Khazarian Zionists against the Ottoman Empire – Islamic Caliphate, and therefore against Islam in its entirety. The fake sheikhs of 1840 Al Azhar were at the very antipodes of the true, authentic sheikhs of the Ottoman times’ Al Azhar whom Napoleon’s puppet Muhammad Ali had earlier (in the early 1800s) executed in a monstrous crime that represents one of the darkest pages of Islamic History (which is of course concealed in most of the books by the Freemasonic-Zionist censorship).

 

Back now to David Roberts’ paintings! In fact, they never caused a doubt about their veracity – except for the case of his drawing of the sunset behind the Sphinx of Gizah, which has of course has artistic compromises. David Roberts’ great Nubian ladies of Qertassi, Korti and other locations did not indulge in materialism, consumerism, and liberalism. They were authentic humans and genuine Muslims, like millions of other African and Asiatic women of those days, who, living in hot climate zones, did not need to wear the silly, strict hejab of the barbaric and idiotic theologians, the likes of Ibn Taimiya and Ibn Abdulwahhab.

 

And this concludes the case of the nature, function, usefulness or uselessness of the Islamic veil.

 

The aforementioned is enough to demonstrate what a truthful Muslim woman must do today: it will however be a difficult task, but there is not going to be anything easy in our days.

 

Speaking to Westerners, a truthful Muslim woman today has to castigate – through acts and words – their present attitude, highlighting the fact that the Westerners dishonor their own ancestors and traditions. Only if the West returns to Christianity, the West will be saved.

 

Under no circumstances has the West to accept today’s filthy, trashy, evil, Satanic pseudo-Islam, which in reality is the other side of the Freemasonic-Zionist coin of our modern(-ist) times in the aforementioned evil dilemma.

 

Self-rectification is therefore needed for both, Christians and Muslims (when limiting the discussion to only these two religions). Their tasks are indeed parallel; the Christians must discover their lost Christianity and the Muslims must seek and find their lost Islam. The tasks are separate, so an immense program must be set up as to just how the entire Muslim populations of Europe will be gradually evacuated and relocated back to their respective countries of origin.

 

And then, addressing the Muslims, a truthful Muslim woman today has to castigate – through acts and words – their present attitude, underscoring the fact that their barbarism, ignorance, and materialism dishonor the Islamic Faith and Heritage because Ignorance in Islam is tantamount to Intellectual and Spiritual Prostitution.

 

Quite unfortunately, the undeniable truth is that today’s average Muslim woman’s lack of education, ignorance, insistence on ‘strict hejab’, and submissiveness to men of their societies (which is by itself an execrable sin), if compared to the great role played by Muslim women in the formation and the development of the Islamic Civilization, makes of the strict hejab a Satanic device and an excellent tool in rendering all Muslim women useless, worthless and evil. This ends up as a sheer promotion of homosexuality, pedophilia and incest within today’s fake Muslim societies of decayed Islam.

 

At the very practical level, this imposes on today’s truthful Muslim women a very difficult path; wearing a non-strict hejab, making their veil evidently lenient, offering an emollient outlook and a propitiatory appearance to the public, a Muslim woman must make today a remarkable achievement that hinges on Aesthetics, Morality, Intellect, and Intelligence.

 

In fact, there cannot be anything moral in Islam that is at the same time ugly. Ugliness is an expression of Evilness. And every strict hejab is utterly and disgustingly ugly. This attitude for a Muslim woman today is tantamount to standing on the blade’s edge. Unfortunately, this is the only free space left today, but it is the only indicated by the Truth and dictated by the Faith.

 

At this point, I have to also offer a practical example; it concerns a great and brave lady, a leading personality of the Islamic World that dwarfs the ignorant, uneducated, uncultured, and therefore useless sheikhs of Al Azhar, Mecca, Madina, Jerusalem, etc. She was a splendid stateswoman, who paid with her life her unique courage and her unshakable intention to firmly state the truth – and not the idiotically considered as politically correct lies of the execrable political microcosm of our days. She had the courage to say in public that Osama bin Laden was assassinated in the last months of 2001, and she said this quite early, when the world was inundated with fake videos prepared by the Mossad and the CIA that the idiots of this world – and all the profane, Satanic governments of the Muslim countries – believed for more than a decade!

 

This great lady offered a perfect example to all Muslim women and in general to all the women of the world: the assassinated Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto!

 

(Read the following article that I published in less than 48 hours after her assassination – the following link is a republication: https://www.academia.edu/24418253/Who_is_Responsible_for_Benazir_Bhuttos_Assassination_-_By_Prof._Muhammad_Shamsaddin_Megalommatis)

 

Certainly, today’s truthful Muslim women have to defend the perfect right of every Muslim woman who wants to be fully uncovered, warning her at the same time that materialism is inhuman and acceptance of Western modernity, technology, and consumerism is not only a sin for a Muslim but also a real spiritual death for any human.

 

On the other hand, today’s truthful Muslim women have to permanently reject the vicious, anti-Islamic and totally Satanic imposition of the totally un-Islamic strict veil, denounce as worthless and valueless trash the filthy, hypocritical prostitutes who wear it, and call for the formation of Civilized Islamic groups that will systematically fight and irrevocably demolish Saudi, Wahhabi and Hanbali Islam in the most determinant manner and with the rules that these groups will find best, rejecting all previously existing Sharia-related laws of any country as evidently inapt to face the Darkness and the Barbarism in today’s decayed, fake Islam.

 

A last point about the hejab: if you search for the textual references, you will automatically realize that the hejab is recommended strictly and exclusively to women with menstruation. An 8-year old child and a 53-year old woman (and all the older) must NOT wear any hejab at all. Those who wear it commit certainly a sin, because they are hypocrites and want to show to the others that they conform to the rule! That’s silly. Those who care about the opinion of the other members of the society are Satanists. One must care about ONLY the opinion of God concerning him-/herself.

 

Allah gave us a brain but if we do not want to use it that is a fault on our part. Too quick to judge, ignorant and proud and impoverished and divided and ill-willed!

 

Right! You have got it very right! Reductionism turns humans to primal, visceral animals.

 

This is the situation of the Somali community at least that I have seen in the UK.

 

It is general all over the world – an indication of irrevocable decadence.

 

Of course, you have those that act selfishly and, when I find such people, I hang on to them like precious rubies. If I volunteered and tried to help expecting thanks, I would be dead by now. More often I have faced envy from the people I have sought to help, and this is when I can sense the ill-will. 

 

“Why did this have to be me and not you”, “why do I have to beg you for help”: these are very key questions that can be read on their faces despite the expressions of gratitude.  

 

You are right; this attitude is due to lack of education and lack of culture or – to put it otherwise – because of the disintegration of the traditional culture of these people. Again, this is general.

 

I remember Allah, and how He has allowed me to focus on what is important, which is within my knowledge (principally fighting the social services to return the children, if the mother has done nothing wrong or to have them placed with a reliable relative / community member, so that they do not lose their identity and religion).

 

May Allah reward you for this work! –  ! جزاكم الله خيرا

 

You know, Prof S., it is difficult to stay positive, and then I remember our Prophet has informed us the only one, who should despair, is Satan.

 

This is a great truth, but people are usually weak in the time of distress; and this process quite unfortunately weakens them even more!

 

I am put off from going to the mosque now in order to avoid the hateful stares of the ignorant masses that know nothing about me and imagine themselves to be better because they wear an Abaya or Niqab, and I have chosen to wear trousers or jeans.

 

V – About today’s desecrated, fake mosques

 

You lose nothing! The reason for this is the fact that almost the quasi-totality of today’s mosques, particularly in major urban centers (be they in the West or in the Muslim countries), have turned out to be desecrated locations whereby the evilness of the fake worshippers invites all sorts of demons and evil spirits that disastrously impact on the souls of the fake Muslims. Those materialistic idiots gather there ignoring the fact that wherever egoism, arrogance, material interests, negation of the truth, hatred, jealousy, rage, concern for financial profit, and other similar attitudes are expressed, the location immediately becomes spiritually contaminated, being thus rendered completely worthless. A negative person brings always a plethora of negative spiritual beings with him/her.

 

The silly sheikhs and imams, who teach their unfortunate followers that you can pray next to a hateful and earlier enraged villain and still remain spiritually intact (!), are filthy liars and foremost Satanists, who work for the propagation of evilness within Islam. As per the materialistic, nonsensical and absurd beliefs of these false sheikhs, the humans are nothing more than pathetic robots whose prayers comprise of just some meaningless utterances and of few repetitive movements. Quite contrarily, we know that Allah did not create trashy robots, but thinking individuals able to ensure full communication between their soul and body.

 

These fake Muslims and criminal sheikhs must be assassinated on the spur of the moment; in any case, their spiritual punishment at the very bottom of the Hell is ferocious. This is due to the fact that, by calling Muslims to pray in desecrated, Satanic mosques, these Satanic sheikhs incessantly and massively perform spiritual assassinations. This is how the Evil spread across the Muslim World. Every mosque desecrated by fake believers, who are full of negative attitudes is a cursed location emanating negativity, demoniacal vibrations, and catastrophic electromagnetic waves that permeate the ignorant idiots, who frequent the ominous building and are thus turned to sinners and disbelievers.

 

I myself take great pain in finding mosques proper enough for praying. Compared to you, I have the great advantage that I live in a country which in the past belonged to Dar al Islam (this notion simply does not exist anymore), and I can therefore find old mosques that are not so much frequented by people today. There, you can feel the positive vibrations of great, faithful people who were spiritually alive and truly communicated with their souls, with the spiritual universe, and with God. In Cairo, I prefer Ibn Tulun Mosque, to cite an example. Equally positive are small mosques in poor, remote villages whereby the inhabitants are mere farmers with few material interests, with disregard for the money, and with distrust toward the evil, Western, modern technology and way of life. Distance from today’s urban centers is priority no 1 for any true Muslim and any true believer of any religion.

 

For you, who live in a city of a non-Muslim country whereby so much hatred and rage are expressed by the fake Muslims – all those who care only about material benefits and goods and have a total disregard for, and ignorance of, their souls – the best solution is to pray at home.

 

God forbid what they would do, if I was not wearing a hijab (probably attack and maul me). When I think of those hateful people, I think of reductionism.

 

You are right; reductionism is the supreme stage of Satanism, because it consists in direct negation of the Creation, and of the Universes (spiritual and material). When you don’t comprehend the Entire Universes, when you fail to realize the magnitude of forms of Faith, when you don’t primarily care about how you will manage to comprehend the Universes and their interconnection, and when you fail to see your entire life as an ongoing exam in Morality, Knowledge, Judgment, Discipline and Wisdom, you end up limiting your mind in few simple tasks, duties, thoughts and practices. This is a direct, aggressive insult of Allah – either you understand it or not. This is what most of today’s ignorant, faithless, fake Muslims do systematically with their daily lives. Their punishment will therefore be unprecedented.

 

In a mosque, a Muslim woman must wear a hejab – even in the way I described earlier. In this, their attitude is similar to that of Christian women, who also wore a veil inside a church in the past, which is still a tradition for queens and noble ladies today.

 

This sticks out to me, because eventually there is only compulsion, because you become intolerant of difference (everyone must look the same, move the same, breath the same, and eventually they must die the same).

 

You are right! There is no compulsion in religion (Al Baqara, 256) – Supreme Rule of Islam.

 

The situation that you describe is an explicit uniformism, which is an appendix to reductionism, while it also reflects the evil Western geological – cosmological theory of Uniformitarianism, which is a sheer postulation, and yet it is still accepted by all sorts of evolutionists. Yet, Abraham Gottlob Werner with his Neptunism was closer to the truth than his opponents, the Plutonists who were the early Uniformitarians.

 

Whatever goes to the direction that you denounce is sheer Satanism. The plurality of forms is inherent to Being, and the uniformity of forms is intrinsic to Non-Being. You need Mohyieldin Ibn Arabi to understand these concepts as elaborated within Islam.

 

I think, I told you my brother said he could not listen to a speech of a young woman I knew speaking about the plight of the Palestinians, because she was not wearing a hijab and yet he believes he is going closer to his ‘Deen’, because he goes to ‘Islamic’ lectures and classes.

 

!! You make me laugh at!!

 

I know, it will take some time, which is made difficult with my indoctrination through the British education system, but I want to be free in my thoughts, free and distant of such ignorant people, spiritually strong and connected with my heritage, and at the service of Allah to help do justice and alleviate the suffering of His Creation. This is what I focus on now, and I am truly grateful to you for your time and effort in assisting me.

 

Thank you! More distance you take from all forms of decayed thoughts and beliefs, farther all these pernicious forms of thought will look to you. You will finally see – so I hope at least – that between a) the modern English evolutionist education and b) the Wahhabi – Ibn Taimiya – Hanbali Islamist doctrines, which are taught in today’s fallacious, Satanic medresas, there is no difference. They both are in fact one doctrine and they both follow the same, archetypal opposition to Creation and to God as expressed by Satan.

 

But it will be only after many years and numerous efforts that you will finally reach the accurate understanding of the world and of the concealed reality. You will then realize quite well what is truly at stake in our days, i.e. an issue that goes back to the times before the Creation.

 

As always wishing you the best

XXXXXX

 

However, your progress will be hindered, and serious obstacles will appear in your path, if you fail to control yourself and stay intact, phlegmatic and terribly cold in front of any possible atrocity that you may come across. This is not a joke! It is a very serious problem. And this is the point that I made at the very beginning of this long email, anticipating that it will displease you.

 

In front of any external, material adversity, it is imperative for any person aspiring to higher understanding, wisdom, intellectual potency, and spiritual forcefulness to withhold all of his / her feelings. Certainly, all humans have their moments of weakness and they would not be humans otherwise.

 

My previous sentence in itself offers you an opportunity of double reading; as a matter of fact, it also implies that non-humans do not have this sentimental weakness, and there are actually non-humans on this world – and not only among the elites.

 

If it takes you 50 years to put your feelings under iron mastership, you will have lost your life, the armies of Evil will have conquered the world, and you will be held responsible for being unable to contribute to a successful aversion of the danger.

 

VI – Reminiscences from the war front between Iran and Iraq

 

I was in your age, when I covered – as war front reporter and journalist – Iranian attacks against Iraq either against Sulaymaniyah (in the area of Iraqi ‘Kurdistan’) or in the invasion of Fao, across the river that the Iranians call Arvand and the Iraqis Shatt al Arab, which is formed by the merge of Euphrates (Al Furat) with Tigris (Dijleh / Dicle), thus becoming their common estuary in the Persian Gulf.

 

In the former expedition, we were inside Iraq within hours after the Iranian attack against the sizable Iraqi city of Sulaymaniyah had taken place; we first flied to Sanandaj, and from there we proceeded to Baneh by helicopter – at times of absolute Iraqi supremacy in the skies! We had signed a paper for this in Tehran prior to the first flight, taking full personal responsibility for our integrity and life. From Baneh, we continued with military jeeps inside Iraqi territory.

 

We reached at a distance of 2 km (bird’s eye) from the Northeastern suburbs of Sulaymaniyah or – to put it otherwise – we were behind the mountain that surrounds the Sorani (‘Kurdish’) Iraqi city from the east. We were on the next mountain in the east (on the mountain’s western slopes), and there was a narrow valley between the two mountains. The Iraqis had withdrawn their forces and emptied the valley, but they were on the opposite mountain (on its eastern slopes), and they were in a position to watch our movements and shoot us, as we visited formerly Iraqi military outposts that Iranian soldiers had attacked and occupied earlier in the morning, let’s say five hours before our arrival. The attack was such that many Iraqi soldiers were killed, and as you can imagine, the dead bodies were not buried by the time we arrived.

 

Blood was spilled all over the place, and the spectacle of the corpses was far worse than the material that you sent me by email, due to explosions that caused the dismemberment of some of Iraqi soldiers’ bodies. Other soldiers were killed by just bullets. The overall sight was the Hell on Earth. We were few journalists; I don’t remember how many, but certainly less than 6 or 7; Iranian military officers were in charge of us. We had received early morning telephone calls at the very time of the attack, and those, who accepted the offer, had only half an hour to get ready, until a separate car would pick up each one of us to drive us to a military airport in Tehran from where we took off immediately. After one hour of flight (or even less), in Sanandaj airport, we walked only few meters from the airplane to the helicopter. It took another 20-25 minutes until we landed in Baneh, at the spot where the jeep drivers were awaiting us.

 

In the outposts with the dead bodies, next to me was the director of Tanjug (Yugoslavian News Agency), a very nice guy (named Zorz Crmaric) whose friendship I really miss, because we did not contact one another after the early 90s, when his country split in a most spectacular way (as you know), and I moved from Germany and Iran to Russia, Turkey and Egypt. When I was in Iran, he constantly invited me to his villa, because he needed my academic background in Iranology and, when I was speaking, he used to take notes ceaselessly. In addition, I had already traveled to far more places in Iran than he had (and not just major cities but remote villages and uninhabited mountains with archaeological sites off the beaten track), and I was a trustworthy source at the journalistic level as well. I was not Muslim at the time, but Iran was a land that brought me very close to Islam and I used to attend seminars conducted in Farsi by Ayatullah Alameh Yahya Noori, a pacifist and a humanist.  

 

As soon as my Serbian friend saw the dismembered corpses, he became pale and started trembling. I was exactly 30, because this story dates back in 1986. Zorz was slightly older than me, he was married, he had two children, and he was trembling like a 10-year old girl! I stopped working and taking pictures or notes, and instead of talking with the Iranian soldiers and officers in my elementary Farsi, I tried to support, strengthen and re-consolidate that poor guy. Soon two Iraqi military airplanes appeared shelling around us; we tried to hide behind the trunks of trees, so open that mountainous slope was. The two Iraqi military airplanes were shelling at a distance, and thank God they did not drop bombs! We were exactly underneath!! Finally, we returned by jeep to Sanandaj, in order to avoid the helicopter for security reasons, and late in the night, we flied back to Tehran safely.

 

The story left me with a conclusion: when you cannot avert the evildoing, you must have at least the courage to see it face to face, being frozen, calm and steadfast.

 

I never regretted for my conclusion. Now, it is not 1986 but 2016. The sun has set and the little light still left will soon disappear. Your attitude will only kill you and this can happen very soon. You have to train yourself as soon as possible in order to eliminate this weak side of character. You must force yourself to become courageous and resolute, able to face adversity, and capable to support others in adversity. This is your caliber; I would not say this to all the women whom I know, but I say it to you, because it suits your fundamental standards. You can be stronger than most of the men of this world, if you try. The predisposition is inside you, and this already means that you have to follow the path opened to you by Allah. You have been sent with a purpose here, and I am confident of what I am telling you now. Escaping from your role will not bring any recompense, believe me!

 

If you want my advice as to just how to overcome this weakness of your youth, I will say that you need to open the Wikipedia and start watching pictures of entries about serious contaminations and diseases. Some of them are so harmful that those affected would really be willing to take the position of the children of your pictures – wherever these pictures may have been taken.

 

If you want I can send you this terribly unpleasant material but, you know, you will have to study closely the awful pictures of people affected by bubonic plague, yellow fever, typhoid, and cholera to see what truly exists on this world.

 

If you fail in this, you only justify those fanatic Wahhabis saying that women are only for the kitchen. The choice is yours.

 

A last point! The most unpleasant one! You seem to daydream about this world, and this must take an irreversible end as soon as possible – for your sake alone. Have you thought for instance how wonderful it was for these little angels to be out of this murky, filthy and disgusting world and what service their killers offered them – without knowing it? Or is it that we only live here, at the material level, and there is nothing afterwards – as per the instructions of the Zionists?

 

I truly confess to you that, in just few years, most of the people in this world will envy the destiny of these young children-angels. Numerous will then find other persons’ tombs and will go to stand out and call them to get out so that the living ones go inside. Do never judge before the complete end of a story!

 

Far from all these fake Muslims, spiritually present more than ever, Prophet Muhammad prayed for these lucky souls, who had the privilege not to know the poisonous truth of our miserable lives. This is the reality.

 

Best regards,

Shamsaddin

Iranian Qajar dynasty Art Gallery (mainly 18th – 19th c.)

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A Large Qajar tile, Persia, 19th century

Of rectangular form moulded and painted in under-glaze cobalt blue, pink, turquoise and brown, outlined in black with a prince and attendant on horseback visiting a courtesan, set amidst a leafy glade with fish pond and palace in the background, with a border of birds and floral scrolls
39.5 by 52cm.

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Khusraw discovers Shirin bathing 

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Kushitic Oromos’ Ancestry in Ethiopia (: Ancient Sudan) & Semitic Amharas’ & Tigrays’ (Abyssinians’) Ancestry in Yemen

The following text is a response sent to an email dispatched to me by the Chairman of the exiled Oromo Parliamentarians who struggle for the Independence and Self-determination of the 5 millennia long Kushitic Ethiopian Nation of the Oromos.

The Hamitic – Kushitic Oromo Nation – due to criminal, inhuman and evil persecution conceived by the colonial powers (France, England and America) and executed by the colonially promoted barbaric and incestuous pseudo-Christian Abyssinians – lost their kingdoms and were engulfed within the Cemetery of Nations Fake Ethiopia, which consists in the world’s most tyrannical realm and the location of the world’s more abhorrent, more enduring, and more multifaceted genocides. There are more than 45 million Oromos in Abyssinia (Fake Ethiopia) and Kenya today, despite the notorious and pathetic falsehood propagated by Wikipedia. 

The present text enumerates all the major points of historical distortion and falsification carried out and diffused by the colonial academia, mass media, and diplomats, as well as by their local agents and criminal executioners, i.e. the barbaric, incestuous and Anti-Christian tribes of Amhara and Tigray (: the Abyssinians), who usurped the fair name of Ethiopia, which historically denotes the land of North Sudan and the Kushitic Nation that prospered there either in the Antiquity or in the Christian Era. Both, the Oromos and the Arabic-speaking (but not Arab) populations of Northern-Central Sudan are the descendants of Ancient Sudan’s (i.e. Ancient Ethiopia’s) Kushitic populations.

Representative photographic documentation was herewith added to the text in order to better illustrate the topic.

Refutation of historical forgeries propagated by European colonials and incestuous Abyssinians

Dear Chairman,

Thank you for your email and news!

I never watch or hear anything produced by the BBC because I know quite well that they have systematically distorted History either they present programs about Asia or they feature Africa, Europe or America.

Thanks to your email, I noticed that this video is not the actual documentary but an announcement for mere publicity.

But it is true that Axum was an Abyssinian capital, and it had nothing to do with Kush/Ethiopia, which was located at the time in the area of today’s North Sudan.

 

Ancient Sudan, as the true Ethiopia (or Kush), and its great past

Kush/Ethiopia was a millennia-long civilization; its three main periods of rise cover the three main stages:

1) Kerma Civilization (2300-1500 BCE),

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(Kerma Deffufa, North Sudan)

2) Napata/Karima Civilization (which is mainly called Kushitic Civilization: 800 – 400 BCE) and

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Napata (Karima & Jebel Barkal, North Sudan)

3) Meroe/Bagrawiyah Civilization (which is mainly called Meroitic Civilization and corresponds to what Ancient Greeks & Romans called ‘Ethiopia’: 400 BCE – 350 CE).

7 Meroe.jpg
Meroe, Capital of Ethiopia (Kush: North Sudan)

10 Mussawarat.jpg

9 Mussawarat.JPG

Mussawarat as Sufrah, a major city of the Meroitic Kingdom of Ethiopia in North Sudan

8 Wad ben Naga.jpg

Wad ben Naga, a major city of the Meroitic Kingdom of Ethiopia in North Sudan

12 Naqa.jpg

11 Naqa.jpg

Naqa, a major city of the Meroitic Kingdom of Ethiopia in North Sudan

Kush/Ethiopia has ethnic, linguistic and cultural affinities with Kemet/Egypt, because both nations are Hamitic, like the Berbers (who are all the people living from Libya to Morocco), the Tuareg, the Haussa, and others. In fact, ancient Egyptian and Sudanese (:Ethiopian) civilizations were deeply intertwined and for the Ancient Egyptians the holiest place in the world was Napata (today’s Karima in North Sudan) as the original location of god Amon of Thebes (Luxor)!

((Beware! All Wikipedia articles contain truth and lies mixed in a sophisticated manner as per the French-English-American needs. Plus: there was never such thing as a “Nubian Civilization”; there were Nubians in both Kemet/Egypt and Kush/Ethiopia, but they never developed an independent civilization, nor did they form a separate state. Only in Christian times, there was a separate state called Nobatia, which existed for several centuries. When people speak of “Nubian pyramids” in today’s Sudan, either they are ignorant and uneducated or they forge History deliberately usurping the History that belongs to present day Sudanese and Oromos and which is Kushitic/Ethiopian of nature, and not Nubian))

Axumite Abyssinia: a late, tiny state of Yemenite settlers in Africa

13 Axum.jpg

Axum, Capital of the Kingdom of Abyssinia (covering Pre-Christian and Christian times)

13 Ancient Blocks With Sabaean Inscriptions Yeha.jpg

Ancient blocks with Yemenite Sabaean inscriptions from Yeha

Totally unrelated to the above was the formation of a small state around Yeha and Axum (Abyssinia) from Semtic, Yemenite settlers, who crossed the Red Sea in later ages. Yeha must have been built around the 3rd-2nd c. BCE and Axum around the 2nd-1st c. BCE, so they belong to the third (3) stage of Ancient Kushitic Civilization as per above. Earlier dates given for these settlements are academic dishonesty due to extensive bribery of scholars, which is – as you already know – a regular practice among the various dictatorial governments, Amhara- or Tigray-led, of Addis Ababa. Example: this article contains numerous deliberate errors and falsehood – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D%CA%BFmt

In fact, Axum was a Yemenite kingdom on African soil; they were not Africans and for their entire pre-Islamic History, they were more concerned with Yemen than with Africa. However, despite all the lies that the Abyssinian governments and agents diffuse, the ancient Axumites had nothing in common with the Queen of Sheba (who lived around the 10th c. BCE in Yemen, when no Yemenite was on African soil). Sheba (Sabaa / Sabaeans) was actually the name of one of the most important Yemenite states; other important states were Qataban, Himyar, Awsan and Hadhramaut.

14 Marib.jpg
Marib, Capital of the Yemenite Kingdom of Sheba / Sabaa (Sabaeans)

16 Awam.jpg

Awam Temple – Yemenite Kingdom of Sheba / Sabaa (Sabaeans)

15.jpg

Zafar, Capital of the Yemenite Kingdom of Himyar (Himyarites)

17 Qataban.jpg

Antiquities from Timna, Capital of the Yemenite Kingdom of Qataban

18 Shabwah.JPG

Shabwah, Capital of the Yemenite Kingdom of Hadhramaut

18 hadhramaut.jpg

Antiquities from Shabwah, Capital of the Yemenite Kingdom of Hadhramaut

The Abyssinians (Habasha), who crossed the Red Sea and settled in Africa, were already mentioned in the Ancient Yemenite (Sabaean) texts as a renegade tribe (Abasat), and we have every reason to understand that they were expelled from their country of origin due to their heresy and evilness.

Meroe (Ethiopia) – Axum (Abyssinia) – Yemenite Sheba & Himyar – Berberia (Sudan’s coast) – The Other Berberia & Azania (Somalia’s coast)

The Axumite Abyssinians formed indeed a small state (limited between Axum and Adulis/near Massawa) and they never reached ever up to the area of Avalites (Assab) near the Red Sea straits. On the contrary, the two Yemenite states Sheba & Himyar merged and they controlled the entire Somali coast from the Horn of Africa down to today’s Daresalaam. This vast coast was a Yemenite colony for several centuries (perhaps up to a millennium at the times of early Islam), and it was named Azania (according to the Ancient Greek text Periplus of the Red Sea, which is also known as Periplus of the Erythraean Sea and was written in the middle of the 1st c. CE: around the years 70-75 CE).

19 Adulis Axum.jpg
Adulis (near Massawa, the only harbor of Axumite Abyssinia), Foundations of Christian Church

The same text gives details about Meroe, which was a big continental state with links across Sahara and with Roman Egypt, but did not control today’s Sudanese coast where – according to the same text – lived the ‘Berbers’ (Kushites who were rather independent from Meroe); for this reason that coast was called Berberia.

Same origin population lived in the coast from Avalites (Assab) to the Horn itself (so the area that today corresponds to Eritrea’s southernmost part, Djibouti, Somaliland, and a small part of Puntland); that’s why in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, the area from Assab to the Horn is named as “The Other Berberia” – something that also highlights the Kushite presence in that area. Beyond the Horn, the populations were Kushitic as well: the ancestors of today’s Somalis. Simply, the term ‘Azania’ (used within the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea) seems to have rather been a ‘political’ term to designate the Yemenite (Sheba/Himyar) colony across the East African coast.

Christian Ethiopian states on Sudan’s territory & Axumite Abyssinia

Axum accepted Christianity in the early 4th c. CE. According to vicious Amhara/Tigray propaganda, Axum was ‘the first Christian state in the world’; this is a lie. The first Christian state in the world was Osroene (an Aramaean state located on part of the territory of today’s Northern Syria and Southeastern Turkey): King Abgar the 9th of Osroene (179 – 214 CE) accepted Christianity as the official religion of his country – more than 150 years before King Ezana of Axum accepted Christianity after the Aramaean Syrian Frumentius (slave, missionary, bishop) preached Christianity there. The state of Osroene was indisputably the first Christian state in the world, and in addition to the above, there are discussions about King Abgar the 8th of Osroene being eventually the King to have Christianized Osroene earlier and about King Abgar the 5th of Osroene being eventually the King to have exchanged letters with Jesus (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abgar_V).

After Ezana made Axumite Abyssinia a Christian country, in coordination with the Christian Roman authorities in Alexandria and Constantinople, he attacked Meroe/Ethiopia (around 360 CE) and destroyed its capital at today’s Bagrawiyah. He then retreated after annexing the occupied territory. He then claimed that he was king of Axum and king of Ethiopia, like every other king who after invading a new land was considered to be king of that land.

However, Meroe/Ethiopia was a vast state covering most of today’s Northern Sudan’s territory. Ezana attacked Meroe’s capital from the south (probably advancing alongside Atbarah river) but the territory of Ethiopia that was occupied by Abyssinia’s Ezana was less than 20% of Ethiopia’s total area.

The claim was ridiculous and it would be tantamount to Hitler claiming to be the ruler of Soviet Union in 1942, because he only invaded part of its western territory.

However, the Abyssinian annexation of 20% of Ethiopia’s (Kush’s) territory did not last for long, and as early as the beginning of the 5th c. CE (so around the period 400-450 CE) Christian Nobatia rose in the Kushitic / Sudanese / Ethiopian North. Slightly later, a second Christian state, Makuria was formed in the Kushitic / Sudanese / Ethiopian mainland of the old Meroitic kingdom. Not much later, Christian Alodia, the third Christian Kingdom of Kush / Ethiopia / Sudan, appeared in the area around today’s Khartoum.

20 map Christian Ethiopia.png

((There are many correct and many wrong points here:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobatia / https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makuria / https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alodia)) Mainly, take into consideration that it is wrong to depict as ‘Nubian’ any other Christian kingdom of Kush / Sudan / Ethiopia except Nobatia. The population of Makuria and Alodia was Kushitic/Ethiopian, i.e. the descendants of the non-Christian Meroitic kingdom’s population.

Archaeological evidence makes it clear that all Meroitic sites were vastly depopulated after Ezana’s invasion of the small southern portion of Meroe / Ethiopia. For the rest of the 4th c. and the 5th c. CE Kush’s (Ethiopia’s) mainland in today’s North Sudan was depopulated. I interpreted this phenomenon as the massive Exodus of the ancestors of Oromos, who wanted to avoid the forced Christianization of their land and therefore left that land to find safe shelter further in the South, until they finally reached – after several steps – the highlands of today’s Oromia:

https://www.academia.edu/24273923/The_Meroitic_Ethiopian_Origins_of_the_Modern_Oromo_Nation_-_By_Prof._Dr._Muhammad_Shamsaddin_Megalommatis

However, when the Amhara / Tigray Abyssinians use the name ‘Ethiopia’ for the country that they formed after their colonial expansion and the genocides that they perpetrated in the period 1850-1950, they forget that Ezana’s claim was politically empty (since he did not invade but only a small portion of Ethiopia) and historically void, because ‘Christian Ethiopia’ as historical term defines the three Christian Kingdoms of Nobatia, Makuria and Alodia, and not the small kingdom of Axum, which collapsed after the arrival of Islam during the 7th c., whereas Christian Makuria survived until ca. 1400 CE and Christian Alodia existed until 1510-1520. This means that there was Christian continuity in Sudan / Ethiopia / Kush, but not in Abyssinia.

20 Nobatia Farras fresco.jpg

Fresco from the Cathedral of Faras, Capital of the Christian Kingdom of Nobatia

20.jpg

Fresco from the Cathedral of Faras, Capital of the Christian Kingdom of Nobatia

20 QUEEN MARTHA NOBATIA.jpg

Fresco from the Cathedral of Faras, Capital of the Christian Kingdom of Nobatia

22 OLD DONGOLA.jpg

Old Dongola (Dunqulah), Capital of the Christian Ethiopian Kingdom of Makuria, North Sudan

21 NATIVITY.jpg

Old Dongola (Dunqulah), Capital of the Christian Ethiopian Kingdom of Makuria, North Sudan – Fresco of the Adoration of the Magi

21 Makuria.jpg

Christian Ethiopian Art & Inscription from the Ethiopian Kingdom of Makuria, North Sudan 

23 Alodia.png

Major expansion of Alodia, the third (and southernmost) Kingdom of Christian Ethiopia (: Sudan)

23 Soba_East,Granitsäulen.jpg

Soba (Khartoum), Capital of the Christian Ethiopian Kingdom of Alodia – foundations of one of the main churches

23.jpg

Tombstone of the Christian Ethiopian King David, Soba (Khartoum) – Capital of Alodia

Axum Abyssinia, Agaw Kushite Kingdom, and Yekuno Amlak’s Satanic state

Almost 300 years after the disappearance of Axum, around 950 CE, in the northern part of today’s Abyssinia, the tiny Christian Agaw state was formed with Lalibela as capital and it lasted until 1270; however this was also a Kushite kingdom because the Agaw Nation is of Kushitic ethnic background. A lot of posterior traditions due to evil colonial motives have obscured the historical reality around the Agaw kingdom, but you can be sure for the following:

24 Lalibela.jpg

Lalibela, Capital of the Christian Kushitic Kingdom of Agaw in the southern extremities of the Old Abyssinian Kingdom of Axum

a. The Agaw Kingdom had no royal or ethnic connection with / continuity from Axum; all opposite claims and mentions of intermarriage are fake. The Semitic descendants of the Axum kingdom were surely among the Agaw kingdom’s subjects, but they did not belong to the ruling royal elite; they were one of the nations that lived under the Agaw scepter and we have reason to believe that they hated it too much.

24 Agaw king.png

Agaw kingship is totally unrelated to the posterior barbaric state launched by Yekuno Amlak. Pictorial documentation demonstrates the Kushitic identity of the Christian Kingdom of Agaw. The blood of the brave last King of the Agaw Kingdom is a curse for the Amhara & Tigray Abyssinians, heralding their total extinction.

b. The Agaw state was a small Kushitic Christian kingdom that never claimed royal or ethnic descent from the Semitic, Yemenite kingdom of Axum and never claimed to be ‘Ethiopia’ – because at those days the Ethiopian kingdoms were Nobatia, Makuria (which merged soon afterwards into one state), and also Alodia.

c. There was indeed a religious continuity between Axum and Agaw kingdoms.

d. There was never an Axumite Abyssinian text to support an eventual claim of royal Axumite descent from the Queen of Sheba & Solomon. Not one Axumite Abyssinian king ever made such a claim.

e. The Semitic Abyssinian Amhara state that was launched by Yekuno Amlak in 1270 has no royal connection with either the Axum or the Agaw kingdoms.

f. The Semitic Abyssinian Amhara state has indeed an ethnic connection with the Semitic descendants of the Axum kingdom; one part of them represents a rather direct descent from the Axumite population (Tigray), whereas the other part is characterized with a certain amalgamation with other populations (Amhara).

This state consisted in a racist entity and an oppressive mechanism against all the non-Amhara and non-Tigray subjects of its territory.

g. In striking contradiction with the Axum and the Agaw kingdoms, the barbaric state launched by Yekuno Amlak at 1270 was never a real kingdom (and much less, an empire, as the Amhara and Tigray Abyssinians have fallaciously pretended), because

i) there was not a dynastic continuity to properly ensure a real royal descent (if the so-called ‘king’ is not the son, grandson, brother, uncle, cousin or nephew of a king, if he does not even belong to the noble class, i.e. the peerage, but has a common or low descent, he can never be a king) and

ii) – more importantly – there is no notion of ‘family’ in the incestuous Amhara society, which means that there cannot be proper ‘royal’ family to offer heads of states possibly able be called ‘kings’ or ’emperors’. The sons of different lowly prostitutes who were ‘married’ to several men can never become ‘kings’ by any standards anytime anywhere in the world. That’s why the Oromo, the Hadiya, the Somali, the Kaffa and other real African kings never accepted those trashy, vulgar, incestuous Amhara or Tigray barbarians as ‘kings’ and never conceded to several demands for a ‘royal’ meeting (: a king never encounters a filthy trash like the Amhara – Tigray bogus-kings).

h. What is more unknown to most people worldwide is that there is not even religious continuity between the Axum and the Agaw kingdoms on one side and the state of Yekuno Amlak on the other side. Post-1270 ‘Christianity’ among the Amhara – Tigray incestuous tribes has nothing in common with either the Lalibela-centered Agaw Christianity or the Axum-based Old Abyssinian Christianity.

The reason is simple; with the proclamation of Yekuno Amlak’s villainous and atrocious state, a new text of fake royal propaganda appeared, ‘Kebra Negast’, which was accepted by the Abyssinians down to Haile Selassie as the epitome of the state’s nature, claims and aspirations. The book accepts Christianity in an heretic manner whereas it distorts all the basic principles of Christian morality. Furthermore, Kebra Negast propagates a great number of Anti-Christian concepts, Satanic theories, counterfeit ideas, historical fallacies, dynastic forgeries, and factual distortions that make it totally impossible for anyone accepting this text to properly be a Christian.

This is the reason the Amhara and the Tigray Abyssinian rulers never accepted Christian Catholic missionaries in their marginal, arid, tiny and ill-fated bogus-kingdom, and they always slaughtered them mercilessly. During the period 1300-1850, more Catholic priests were killed in the then tiny territory of Abyssinia than in any other part of the world, the Islamic Caliphate and other Islamic Empires included.

Two different Abyssinian claims to the Name of Ethiopia: Ezana’s and Haile Selassie’s

Finally, one must clearly make a distinction between Ezana’s claim to the title of ‘king of Ethiopia’ and the recent Abyssinian policies (that date back only to 1950s) and false pretensions that Abyssinia can be possibly called ‘Ethiopia’, which consist in sheer usurpation of a name that is totally unrelated to the Amhara and Tigray Abyssinians and their past.

25 EzanaGreekTablet.jpg
King Ezana’s inscription – the Greek text

King Ezana’s claim was something normal as practice at those days. Example: Publius Cornelius Scipio was a Roman general and later consul who is often regarded as one of the greatest generals and military strategists of all time. His main achievements were during the Second Punic War (218 – 201 BCE) where he is best known for defeating Hannibal at the final battle at Zama, one of the feats that earned him the agnomen Africanus. Because he won over the African state of Carthage, he was called Scipio the ‘African’.

However, when the Abyssinian control of the small part of Ethiopian (Sudanese) territory ended few decades later and Nobatia, Makuria and Alodia rose to prominence as the three Christian states on the Ethiopian (e. g. North Sudanese) territory, any Axumite Abyssinian claim to the name of Ethiopia was purely void, fully insignificant, and practically meaningless.

As a matter of fact, the modern claim is rather relevant to Anti-Christian eschatological and messianic beliefs introduced among the Abyssinians only with the aforementioned forgery of Kebra Negast, a text that can be considered as Christian as the devious Jewish forgery of ‘Talmud’ can be described as Biblical Hebrew!

“Ethiopia shall hasten [to stretch out] her hand readily to God

The eschatological and messianic beliefs introduced among the Abyssinians are based on a Biblical text of the Old Testament (Psalms, 67:32) in which the Septuagint Greek text reads “ἥξουσι πρέσβεις ἐξ Αἰγύπτου, Αἰθιοπία προφθάσει χεῖρα αὐτῆς τῷ Θεῷ”, which is translated in Modern English “Ambassadors shall arrive out of Egypt; Ethiopia shall hasten [to stretch out] her hand readily to God”. (http://www.ellopos.net/elpenor/greek-texts/septuagint/chapter.asp?book=24&page=67)

{{Here I must add that you must never use the false English translation prepared by the evil, bastard and Freemason king of England James I (reign: 1603 – 1625), the so-called King James Version – KJV – because it is part of the same Satanic conspiracy that brought the Amhara and the Tigray Abyssinian invaders to your lands and provided for the 150-year long Oromo Genocide and many other genocides of subjugated African nations across Abyssinia and elsewhere. This extremely distorted translation (King James Version / KJV) serves only to diffuse confusion and falsehood and to promote the enslavement of all the nations of the world to Satan and all the filthy and evil spirits. King James I was an evil person and an accomplished Satanist, who took even the pain of writing a book titled “Daemonologie”, which is “a philosophical dissertation on contemporary necromancy and the historical relationships between the various methods of divination used from ancient Black magic. This included a study on demonology and the methods demons used to trouble men while touching on topics such as werewolves and vampires”. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daemonologie) You understand, of course, that whoever diffuses the words of filthy spirits and evil demons cannot possibly be involved in the holy texts of any religion, except for the purpose of falsifying them as per the guidance given to him by the evil spirits which he serves. With reference to modern English translations of the Christian Bible, beware also of many other fake English translations that repeat the same mistakes of KJV which is not a correct and direct translation from the Ancient Greek text but from a late Jewish forgery, the so-called masoretic text of which the earlier manuscript dates back only to 9-10th c., namely more than 1000 years after the Greek text of the Hebrew Bible! More: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/10035a.htm / But this is all mistaken: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masoretic_Text}}

Now, why was the verse “Ambassadors shall arrive out of Egypt; Ethiopia shall hasten [to stretch out] her hand readily to God” thought to be of eschatological and messianic meaning?

A Kushitic Ethiopian Prince from Meroe & Ancestor of the Oromos speaks with Philip, one of Jesus’ disciples

This is due to the fact that there is a reference in the New Testament (Acts, 8:26-40) according to which there was an ‘Ethiopian’ prince, who while traveling in Palestine met and spoke with Philip, one of Jesus’ disciples (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_the_Apostle), and then accepted Jesus’ preaching and became Christian.

Here you have the entire narration: “26 And the angel of the Lord spake unto Philip, saying, Arise, and go toward the south unto the way that goeth down from Jerusalem unto Gaza, which is desert. 27 And he arose and went: and, behold, a man of Ethiopia, an eunuch of great authority under Candace queen of the Ethiopians, who had the charge of all her treasure, and had come to Jerusalem for to worship, 28 Was returning, and sitting in his chariot read Esaias the prophet. 29 Then the Spirit said unto Philip, Go near, and join thyself to this chariot. 30 And Philip ran thither to him, and heard him read the prophet Esaias, and said, Understandest thou what thou readest? 31 And he said, How can I, except some man should guide me? And he desired Philip that he would come up and sit with him. 32 The place of the scripture which he read was this, He was led as a sheep to the slaughter; and like a lamb dumb before his shearer, so opened he not his mouth: 33 In his humiliation his judgment was taken away: and who shall declare his generation? for his life is taken from the earth. 34 And the eunuch answered Philip, and said, I pray thee, of whom speaketh the prophet this? of himself, or of some other man? 35 Then Philip opened his mouth, and began at the same scripture, and preached unto him Jesus. 36 And as they went on their way, they came unto a certain water: and the eunuch said, See, here is water; what doth hinder me to be baptized? 37 And Philip said, If thou believest with all thine heart, thou mayest. And he answered and said, I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. 38 And he commanded the chariot to stand still: and they went down both into the water, both Philip and the eunuch; and he baptized him. 39 And when they were come up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord caught away Philip, that the eunuch saw him no more: and he went on his way rejoicing. 40 But Philip was found at Azotus: and passing through he preached in all the cities, till he came to Caesarea”. (http://www.ellopos.net/elpenor/greek-texts/new-testament/acts/8.asp)

An ancestor of the Oromos accepted Jesus centuries before the ancestors of the Amhara and Tigray Abyssinians

26 Menologion_of_Basil.jpg

Miniature painting depicting Jesus’ disciple Philip and the Meroitic Ethiopian prince who accepted Jesus’ preaching and was baptized. From the Menologion of the Eastern Roman Emperor Basil II, which was compiled around the year 1000 – currently in the Vatican Library. (More: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menologion_of_Basil_II)


So, the historical forgers interpret the earlier verse (Psalms, 67:32) as being a prophecy that was materialized in the person of the Ethiopian prince. As you can understand, this concerns Kush / Sudan, i.e. the Kingdom of Ethiopia with Meroe as capital which was located in today’s North Sudan. Even more so because the New Testament excerpt includes a typically Meroitic / Ethiopian word, namely Kandake (Candace), which is not a personal name, but the title itself (lit. ‘queen’) in Meroitic / Ethiopian language. This article is correct: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kandake

We also know, thanks to Meroitic / Ethiopian textual documentation, that the title ‘King’ in Ancient Meroitic / Ethiopian was ‘Qore’ (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_monarchs_of_Kush). This Kushitic word has been preserved down to our times in Af Somali as ‘Boqor’ (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somali_aristocratic_and_court_titles).

Meroitic/Kushitic/Sudanese/Ethiopian Candace: Unrelated to Abyssinians

The use of the term ‘Candace’ makes the proof even stronger that the earlier Biblical text (Psalms) prophesied indeed the Christianization of Sudan / Kush / Ethiopia, first in the form of the traveling prince, and second, few centuries after the travel of the Ethiopian Meroitic prince in Palestine, when Nobatia, Makuria and Alodia became the three Christian states of Sudan/Ethiopia.

Abyssinia in any form (Axum or posterior) is totally unrelated to this story, and tiny Axum at the time was a non Christian country and remained as such for another 300 years! No Axumite Abyssinian prince traveled to Palestine at the times of the Apostles (Jesus’ disciples) and of course, there was no Candace/Kandake in Axum at those days or any time later!

The Abyssinian claim may look absurd. But this is always the nature of forgery! When evil people and barbaric nations like the Amhara / Tigray Abyssinians try to usurp the Past and the History of civilized nations, they raise false claims and come up with incredible misinterpretations that only criminals or paranoids dare express.

Last but not the least, the whole affair of the recent claim (which started with Haile Selassie in the 1950s) involves Westerners (colonial French academia), who then convinced the fake king Haile Selassie about using the name of Ethiopia instead of Abyssinia. This has a lot to do with Freemasonic and Zionist plans and conspiracies regarding Eastern Africa; however this is rather politics and not History.

A Sudanese-Oromo alliance to overthrow the genocidal Abyssinian tyranny

The best chance for the Oromos to counterbalance and overthrow the colonial conspiracy against their nation is to
1. reach out to today’s Arabic-speaking people and rulers of Sudan,
2. help them realize that
a. they are not Arabs, but linguistically Arabized Kushites of Sudan
b. they are straight descendants of the Ancient Sudanese / Kushites / Ethiopians
c. as such they are the truly fraternal nation to the Oromos
d. the real offspring of the Ancient Sudanese / Kushites / Ethiopians are both, the Oromos (who left their land but preserved and saved their language) and the Arabic-speaking Sudanese (who preserved their land but lost their own language)
e. the real name of their land (Sudan) and of Oromia is Ethiopia / Kush and that you and they must take it back from the Abyssinians
f. the Arabization project across Africa and Asia was conceived by the three colonial powers (France, England and America) that are controlled by Freemasonry and Zionism in order to destroy the nations to which it was projected and on which it was imposed (from Morocco to Iraq), and this is the reason for all the problems and disasters that fell on each of those nations, and
g. the only means of survival of today’s Sudan is the detachment from the fallacy of Pan-Arabism and the return to the true historical identity (Kushitic – Ethiopian) that their land had for millennia, and
3. establish an Oromo – Sudanese alliance to overthrow the tribal tyranny of the Abyssinians who consist in a minority within the colonial state of Fake Ethiopia.

Best regards,
Shamsaddin

 

The Meroitic Ethiopian Origins of the Modern Oromo Nation

The Meroitic Ethiopian Origins of the Modern Oromo Nation

By Prof. Dr. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis  

First published in: http://www.americanchronicle.com/articl … leID=21760  

Subsequently published in: Oromo Studies Association, 2005 Conference Proceedings, Washington D.C., 2005, 10p

Online mention: http://oromostudies.org/Proceedings/OSA.Proceeding.2005.pdf

The present text has been slightly edited.

 

This paper deals, among others, with the development of Meroitic studies, the Meroitic civilization, the destruction of the city of Meroe, the dispersal of the Meroitic people after the collapse of their state, the Christianization of the post Meroitic states in Ethiopia (i.e. Northern Sudan / it is to be reminded that the modern state of Abyssinia is fallaciously, illegally and criminally rebaptized ‘Ethioipia’), the migration of the remnants of the Meroitic people in the direction of the Blue Nile, and their possible relation of ancestry with the modern Cushitic language speaking Oromo nation. It must be stated clearly at the outset that the issue of Meroitic ancestry of the Oromo nation has not yet been considered, much less published in an academic journal or scholarly books. The paper was first presented in an academic conference organized by the Oromo Studies Association. Footnotes have been added in view of the aforementioned publication (see Pdf). 

1. The Development of the Meroitic Studies, the History of Kush and Meroe, and the Efforts to Decipher the Meroitic Writing  

Interest in what was Ethiopia for the Ancient Greeks and Romans, i.e. the Northern territory of present day Sudan from Khartoum to the Egyptian border *1, led to the gradual development of the modern discipline of the Humanities that long stood in the shadow of Egyptology: the Meroitic Studies.  

Considerable advances had been made in academic research and knowledge as the result of the exploratory trips of the Prussian pioneering Egyptologist Richard Lepsius *2 (1842 – 1844) that bestowed upon modern scholarship the voluminous ‘Denkmaeler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien’ (Monuments from Egypt and Ethiopia), and as the direct consequence of the series of excavations undertaken by E. A. Wallis Budge *3 and John Garstang *4 at Meroe (modern Bagrawiyah) in the first years of the twentieth century, by Francis Llewellyn Griffith *5 at Kawa (ancient Gematon, near modern Dongola, 1929 – 1931), by Fritz Hintze *6 at Musawwarat es Sufra, by Jean Leclant *7 at Sulb (Soleb), Sadinga (Sedeinga), and Djebel Barkal (ancient Napata, modern Karima) in the 1950s and the 1960s, by D. Wildung *8 at Naqah, and by Charles Bonnet at Kerma. The pertinent explorations and contributions of scholars like A. J. Arkell *9, P. L. Shinnie *10, and Laszlo Torok *11 that cover a span of 80 years reconstituted a large part of the greatness and splendor of this four millennia long African civilization.  

Yet, due to the lack of direct access to original sources and genuine understanding of the ancient history of Sudan, the legendary and historical Ethiopia of the Greeks and Romans, which corresponds to what was ‘Kush’ for the Hebrews (mentioned many times in the Bible) and ultimately ‘Kas’ for the ancient Egyptians *12 (mentioned in thousands of hieroglyphic, hieratic and demotic texts), we face a serious problem of terminology when it comes to Ancient Sudan’s earlier historical periods.  

We are confined to such terms as Period (or Group) A (3100 – 2700 BCE), *13 Period B *14 (2700 – 2300 BCE that starts with Pharaoh Snefru’s expedition, *15 which marks indeed the beginning of the time-honored and multi-faceted relationship between Kemet-Egypt and Kush), and Period C *16 (2300 – 2100 BCE), for one millennium of Ancient Sudanese (Ethiopian or Kushitic) History. For the said period, thanks to Ancient Egyptian texts, we have a plethora of ethnic names and state names referring to populations living in North Sudan’s territory (notably Wawat, Irtet, Setjiu,Yam, Zetjau, and Medjay *17); but we fail to correctly establish to whom these names exactly refer as ethno-linguistic groups (Kushitic? Nilo-Saharan? Western Hamitic?).

Subsequent periods of Ancient Sudanese History are also denoted in conventional manner, as this is highlighted by the term Period of Kerma *18 (2100 – 1500 BCE); this period is named after the modern city and archeological site, 500 km in the south of the present Sudanese – Egyptian border.  

What we know for sure is that, when the first Pharaohs of the New Empire invaded and colonized the entire area down to Kurgus *19 (more than 1000 km alongside the Nile, south of the present Sudanese – Egyptian border), they established two top Egyptian administrative positions, namely “Viceroy of Wawat” and “Viceroy of Kush/Kas”. Wawat is the area between Aswan and Abu Simbel or properly speaking, the area between the first and the second cataracts, whereas Kas is all the land that lies beyond. With the collapse of the Kerma culture, comes to end a first high-level culture and powerful state in the area of Kush.  

We employ the term ‘Kushitic Period’ *20 to refer to the subsequent periods: 

a) the Egyptian annexation (1500 – 950 BCE), which involved a permanent effort to egyptianize Kush that triggered in turn ceaseless Kushitic revolutions against the Pharaohs,  

b) the Kushitic independence (950 – 800 BCE), when a separate state was formed around Napata *21, present day Karima, 750 km south of the Sudanese – Egyptian border,  

c) the Kushitic expansion and involvement in Egypt (800 – 670 BCE, which corresponds mostly to the XXVth – ‘Ethiopian’ (meaning literally Sudanese) according to Manetho *22 – dynasty of Egypt, when the Theban clergy of Amun made an alliance with the Kushitic ‘Qore’, i.e. the Kings of Napata, who ruled Kush and Upper Egypt based on their two capitals, Napata and Thebes *23, (the alliance was directed against the pact that the Heliopolitan clergy of Ra had made with the Libyan princes who thus strengthened the separate state of Lower Egypt),  

Slide14

d) the Kushitic expulsion from Egypt, following the three successive invasions of Egypt by Emperors Assarhaddon *24 (in 671 BCE) and Assurbanipal *25 (in 669 BCE and 666 BCE) of Assyria, who made an alliance with the Heliopolitan *26 priesthood and the Libyan princes against the Theban clergy and the Kushitic kings, and  

e) the subsequent Kushitic state’s decline – period during which took place the successive invasions led by Psamtik/Psammetichus II of Egypt *27 (in 591 BCE) and by the Achaemenid *28 Persian Shah Kambudjiyah / Cambyses *29 (in 525 BCE).

The entire Kushitic period is considered as terminated with the completion of the transfer of the capital city at a much safer (and more distant from Egypt) location far in the south, namely at Meroe, in the area of present day Bagrawiyah beyond the point whereby Atbarah river unites with the Greater Nile. This event occurred at the end of the reign of Qore (King) Nastasen *30 between 335 and 315 BCE.  

Slide21 

We call ‘Meroitic’ the entire period that covers almost 700 years beginning around 260 BCE with the reign of the successors of Nastasen, notably Arkamaniqo / Ergamenes *31 (the most illustrious among the earliest ones and the first to be buried at Meroe / Bagrawiyah), and ending with the end of Meroe and the destruction of the Meroitic royal cities by the Axumite Abyssinian Negus Ezana *32 (ca. 370 CE). It is easily understood that the ‘Kushitic’ period antedates ‘Meroitic’ period, but both appellations are quite conventional.  

Slide27

 

The ancient people of Kush (or Ethiopia) entered into a period of cultural, intellectual, and scriptorial radiation and authenticity relatively late, around the third century BCE, which means that the development took place when Meroe replaced Napata as capital of the Kushites / Meroites. Before that moment, the ancient people of Kush (or Ethiopia) used Egyptian hieroglyphic writing for all their scriptorial purposes, be they administrative, economic, religious and/or monumental – royal. The introduction of the Meroitic alphabetic hieroglyphic writing spearheaded the development of a Meroitic cursive alphabetic scripture that was used for less magnificent purposes than palatial and sacred relief inscriptions. The first person to publish copies of Meroitic inscriptions (then unidentified) was the French architect Gau *33, who visited Northern Sudan as early as 1819. Quite unfortunately, almost two centuries after the discovery of the first Meroitic inscriptions, we are left in mysteries with regard to the greatest part of the contents of the epigraphic evidence collected in both scriptural systems.  

The earliest dated Meroitic hieroglyphic inscriptions belong to the reign of the ruling queen Shanakdakheto *34 (about 177-155 BCE), but archaeologists believe that this scripture represents the later phase of a language spoken by Kushites / Meroites at least as far back as 750 BCE and possibly many centuries or even millennia before that (hinting therefore at a Kushitic / Ethiopian continuity from the earliest Kerma days at the end of the 3rd millennium BCE). The earliest examples of Meroitic cursive inscriptions, recently found by Charles Bonnet in Dukki Gel (REM 1377-78) *35, can also be dated in the early 2nd century BCE. The latest text is still probably the famous inscription from Kalabsha (Ancient Egyptian Talmis) mentioning King Kharamadoye (REM 0094) *36, which dates back to the beginning of the fifth century CE, although some funeral texts from Ballana *37 could be contemporary or even posterior.  

Slide19

 

Despite the fact that F. L. Griffith identified the twenty three (23) Meroitic alphabetic writing signs already in 1909, not much progress has been made towards the ultimate decipherment of the Meroitic *38. Scarcity of epigraphic evidence plays a certain role in this regard, since as late as the year 2000 we were not able to accumulate more than 1278 texts in all types of Meroitic writing. If we now add to this fact the lack of lengthy texts, the lack of any bilingual text (not necessarily Egyptian /Meroitic, it could also be Ancient Greek / Meroitic, if we take into consideration that Arkamaniqo / Ergamenes *39 was personally well versed in Greek), and a certain lack of academic vision, we understand why the state of our knowledge about the history of the Ancient Meroites is still so limited.  

Linguistics and parallels from other languages have been repeatedly set in motion in order to help the academic research. Griffith and Haycock *40 tried to read Meroitic, through use of (modern) Nubian – quite unsuccessfully. K.H. Priese *41 tried to read the Meroitic texts, using Eastern Sudanese (Beja *42 or Hadendawa *43) languages – also unsuccessfully. On the other hand, F. Hintze *44, attempted to compare Meroitic with the Ural-Altaic group (Turko-Mongolian languages) to no avail. More recently, Siegbert Hummel *45, compared the “known” Meroitic words to words attested in languages of the Altaic family which he believed was a substrate language of Meroitic; as this hypothesis is totally wrong, no result came out of this effort. At times, scholars (like Clyde Winters *46) were driven to farfetched interpretations, attempting to equate Meroitic with Tokharian, after assuming a possible relationship between the names Kush and Kushan *47, the latter being the appellation of a sizeable Eastern Iranian state of the late Arsacid *48 (250 BCE – 224 CE) and early Sassanid *49 (224 – 651 CE) times. However, one has to conclude that the bulk of the researchers working on the Meroitic language never believed that the language of the Ancient Sudanese (Ethiopians) could ever be a member of the so-called Afro-Asiatic group of languages (the term itself being very wrong and quite fraudulent).  

So far, the only Meroitic words for which a solid translation had been given by Griffith and his successors are the following: man, woman, meat, bread, water, give, big, abundant, good, sister, brother, wife, mother, child, begotten, born, feet. The eventual equivalence between Egyptian and Meroitic texts was a strong motivation for any interpretational approach, recent or not. More recent, but still dubious, suggestions are the following: arohe- ‘protect’, hr- ‘eat’, pwrite ‘life’, yer ‘milk’, ar ‘boy’, are- or dm- ‘take, receive’, dime ‘cow’, hlbi ‘bull’, ns(e) ‘sacrifice’, sdk ‘journey’, tke- ‘love, revere’, we ‘dog’. It is clear that vocalization remains a real problem *50.  

naqa-sudan

 

Through the aforementioned we realize why collective works, like Fontes Historiae Nubiorum. Textual Sources for the History of the Middle Nile Region (vols. I – IV, edited by T. Eide, T. Haegg, R.H. Pierce, and L. Torok, University of Bergen, Bergen 1994, 1996. 1998 and 2000), are still seminal for our – unfortunately indirect, as based on Ancient Egyptian, Greek, Latin and Coptic texts – knowledge of Ancient Meroe. 

2. The End of Meroe  

Amidst numerous unclear points of the Kushitic / Meroitic (Ancient Sudanese / Ethiopian) History, the end of Meroe and the consequences under which it happened still remain a most controversial point among scholars. Quite indicatively, we may mention here the main efforts of historical reconstitution. 

A. Arkell, Sayce and others asserted that Meroe was captured and destroyed, following one military expedition led by Ezana of Axum. 

B. Reisner insisted that, after Ezana’s invasion and victory, Meroe remained a state under another dynasty tributary to Axum. 

C. Monneret de Villard and Hintze affirmed that Meroe was totally destroyed already before Ezana’s invasion, due to another, earlier Axumite Abyssinian raid. 

D. Torok, Shinnie, Kirwan, Haegg and others concluded that Meroe was defeated by a predecessor of Ezana, and continued existing as a vassal state.  

E. Bechhaus-Gerst specified that Meroe was invaded prior to Ezana’s raid, and that the Axumite invasion did not reach further lands north of Meroe *51.  

With two fragmentary inscriptions from Meroe, one from Axum, two graffitos from Kawa and Meroe, and one coin being all the evidence we have so far, we have little to properly reconstruct the details that led to the collapse of Meroe. One relevant source, the Inscription of Ezana (DAE 11, the ‘monotheistic’ inscription in vocalized Ge’ez), *52 remains a somewhat controversial historical source to be useful in this regard. The legendary Monumentum Adulitanum *53, lost but copied in a confused way by Cosmas Indicopleustes *54, may not shed light at all on this event. One point is sure, however: there was never a generalized massacre of the Meroitic inhabitants of the lands conquered by Ezana. The aforementioned DAE 11 inscription mentions just 758 Meroites killed by the Axumite forces.  

What is even more difficult to comprehend is the reason behind the scarcity of population attested on Meroitic lands in the aftermath of Ezana’s raid. The post-Meroitic and pre-Christian, transitional, phase of Sudan’s history is called X-Group *55 or Period, and also Ballana Period; this atypical appellation underscores the lack to historical insight that happens once more in the History of Ancient Sudan (Ethiopia).  

During the Ballana Period (X-Group) and contrarily to what happened for many centuries of Meroitic History, when the Meroitic South (the area between today’s Shendi *56 and Atbarah *57 in modern Sudan with the entire hinterland of Butana that was called Insula Meroe / Nesos Meroe, i.e. Island Meroe in the Antiquity) was overpopulated comparatively with the Meroitic North {the area between Napata / Karima and Abu Simbel *58 or further in the North, Aswan *59 (the area between Aswan and Abu Simbel was then called Triakontaschoinos *60 and politically, it was divided between Meroe and the Roman Empire)}, the previously under-populated area (i.e. the Meroitic North) gives us the impression of a more densely peopled region, if compared to the previous center of Meroitic power and population density (the Meroitic South). The new situation contradicts therefore the earlier descriptions and narrations by Dio Cassius *61 and Strabo *62.  

Furthermore, the name ‘Ballana period’ is quite indicative in this regard, because Ballana is located on Egyptian soil, whereas not far, south of the present Sudanese – Egyptian border, lies Karanog with its famous tumuli that bear evidence of Nubian (not Kushitic / Meroitic) upper hand in terms of social anthropology. The southernmost counterpart of Karanog culture can be found in Tangassi (nearby Karima, which represented the ‘North’ for what was the center of the earlier Meroitic power). This means that for the period immediately after the destruction of Meroe (ca. 370 CE), the Meroitic North offers the archaeological evidence that serves to name the entire period (Ballana Period), whereas the Meroitic South seems to have been totally uninhabited.  

In addition, in terms of culture, X-Group heralds a total break with the Meroitic tradition, with the Nubians and the Blemmyes/Beja outnumbering the Meroitic remnants and imposing a completely different cultural and socio-anthropological milieu out of which would later emanate the first and single Nubian state in the World History: Nobatia.  

Much confusion characterized modern scholars when referring to Kush or Meroe by using the modern term ‘Nubia’. By now, it is clear that the Nubians lived since times immemorial in both Egypt and the Sudan, being part of the history of these two lands. However, the Nubians are a Nilo-Saharan ethno-linguistic group different from the Hamitic Kushites / Meroites. At the times of X-Group and during the long centuries of Christian Sudan, we have the opportunity to attest the differences and the divergence between the Nubians and the Meroitic remnants.  

Following the collapse of the Meroitic state, the epicenter of the Nubian land, i.e. the area between the first (Aswan) and the third (Kerma) cataracts, rose to independence and prominence first, with capital at Faras, nearby the present day Sudanese – Egyptian border, around 450 CE. Nobatia institutionalized Coptic as religious (Christian) and administrative language, and Nubian language remained an oral only means of communication. The Nobatian control in the areas south of the third cataract was vague, nominal and precarious. Nobatia was linked with the Coptic (‘Monophysitic’) Patriarchate of Alexandria.

This means something very important for the Christian History of Sudan (Ethiopia); Christianization did not come from Abyssinia, and there was no cultural or religious impact exercised by Axum on (Ethiopia) Sudan. As in pre-Christian times, Ethiopia remained the absolute opposite of Abyssinia. In the true, historical Ethiopia (Sudan), Christianization came from the North (Egypt). Abyssinia (which cannot be called ‘Ethiopia’ and which has absolutely no right to the name of Ethiopia) was a marginal and isolated, tiny and mountainous state that basically controlled the land between Axum and Adulis (on the Red Sea shore). And King Ezana’s invasion and destruction of Meroe was an occasional and inconsequential event that did not bring forth any immediate major result.  

The Meroitic remnants underscored their difference from the Nubians / Nobatians, and the depopulated central part of the defunct state of Meroe rose to independence only later, in the first decades of the sixth century. Its name, Makuria, is in this regard a linguistic reminiscence of the name ‘Meroe’, but we cannot know its real origin and meaning. The remnant of the Meroitic populations inhabited the northern circumference of Makuria more densely, and the gravitation center revolved around Old Dongola (580 km south of Wadi Halfa), capital of this Christian Orthodox state that extended from Kerma to Shendi (the area of the sixth cataract), so for more than 1000 km alongside the Nile. But beyond the area of Karima (750 km in the south of Wadi Halfa) and the nearby famous Makurian monastery at Al Ghazali we have very scarce evidence of Christian antiquities. The old African metropolis of Meroe remained at the periphery of both, the Kushitic Ethiopian states of Makuria and Alodia and the Semitic Abyssinian state of Axum.  

Makurians highlighted their ideological – religious divergence from the Nubians, by adopting Greek, not Coptic, as religious language. They even introduced a new scripture for their Makurian language that seems to have been a later phase of Meroitic. Makurian was written in alphabetic Greek signs. Risen at a time of Christological disputes and theological conflicts that brought about a forceful polarization between the Greek Orthodox and the Coptic ‘Monophysitic’ Patriarchates of Alexandria, the state and the Christian church of Makuria sided with the Greek Patriarchate of Alexandria, in striking opposition to the Nobatian state and church that allied themselves with the Coptic Patriarchate of Alexandria.  

Further in the South, Alodia has long been called by modern scholars as the ‘third Christian state’ of Sudan, but recent discoveries in Soba, its capital (15 km at the east of Khartoum), suggest that Alodia rose first to independence (around 500 CE) and later adhered to Christianity (around 580 – 600 CE), following evangelization efforts deployed by missionary Nobatian priests (possibly in a sort of anti-Makurian religious diplomacy). In general, we know little about Alodia (or Aluwah or Alwa), and we actually don’t know whether they used a particular Alodian writing system.  

The later phases of the History of Christian Ethiopia (Sudan) encompass the Nobatian – Makkurian merge (around 1000 CE), which was necessary for the two Christian states to defend themselves against the Islamic pressure coming manly from the North (Egypt), the islamization of Makkuria in 1317, and finally, the late collapse of Christian Alodia in 1505.  

The question remains unanswered until today:  

– What happened to the bulk of the Meroitic population, i.e. the inhabitants of the Insula Meroe, the present day Butana? What occurred to the Meroites living between the fourth and the sixth cataracts after the presumably brief raid of Ezana of Axum, and the subsequent destruction of Meroe, Mussawarat es Sufra, Naqah, Wad ben Naqah, Basa and all the other important cities of the Meroitic heartland? 

3. Reconstruction of the Post-Meroitic History of the Kushitic Oromo Nation  

Certainly, the motives of Ezana’s raid have not yet been properly studied and assessed by modern scholarship. The reasons for the raid may vary from a simple nationalistic usurpation of the name of ‘Ethiopia’ (Kush), which would give a certain Christian eschatological legitimacy to the Axumite Abyssinian kingdom, to the needs of international politics (at the end of 4th c. CE) and the eventuality of an Iranian – Yemenite (Himyaritic) – Meroitic alliance at the times of Shapur II (310 – 379), aimed at outweighing the Eastern Roman – Abyssinian bond.  

Yet, this Iranian – Sudanese political alliance may have been only the later phase of a time-honored Iranian infiltration that could have taken the form of an (easily assessable by both civilizations and nations, the Meroites and the Iranians) heliocentric theology and imperial ideology. No less than 300-350 years before Ezana’s raid and destruction of Meroe, the famous Jebel Qeili reliefs of Shorakaror mark an impressive penetration of Mithraic artistic and religious concepts and forms.  

Slide45

Whatever the reasons of Ezana’s raid may have been, we can be quite sure, when it comes to the destruction of Meroe, about two determinant points that impose a fresh approach and interpretation of the historical development:

a) the absence of any large-scale massacre is evident, and  

b) the impressive scarcity of population in the old, central Meroitic provinces is a fact for the period that follows Ezana’s raid and the destruction of Meroe.

The only plausible explanation is that the scarcity of population in the Meroitic mainland after Meroe’s destruction must be due to a large scale migration to safer areas far from the reach of the king of Axum.  

The only explanation to match the historical facts and the archeological evidence is that, following Ezana’s raid, the Meroites in their outright majority (at least for the inhabitants of Meroe’s southern provinces) fled and migrated to areas where they would stay independent from the Semitic Abyssinian kingdom of Christian Axum. This explanation hinges on the best utilization and interpretation of the already existing historical – archaeological data.  

From archeological evidence, it becomes clear that during X-Group phase and throughout the Makurian period (so for many long centuries) the former heartland of Meroe remained mostly uninhabited. The end of Meroe is definitely very abrupt, and this makes obvious that Meroe’s driving force had gone elsewhere. The correct question would then be ‘where to’?  

There is no evidence of Meroites sailing the Nile downwards to the area of the 4th (Karima) and the 3rd (Kerma) cataracts, which was earlier the northern circumference of Meroe and remained totally untouched by Ezana. There is no textual evidence in Greek, Latin and/or Coptic to testify to such a migratory movement toward the North. Christian Roman Egypt would certainly be an incredible direction, but if this had been the case, the migration would have been recorded in some texts and monuments due to its importance. To the above, we have to add the impossibility of marching to the heartland of Abyssinia, because this must have been for the migrating Meroites the only direction to avoid, and again if it had occurred, it would have been mentioned in some historical sources, Ge’ez, Coptic, Syriac, Greek or Latin.  

Having therefore excluded all the migration alternatives as per above, we can examine the remaining possibilities. The migrating Meroites could therefore have a) gone either to the vast areas of the Eastern and the Western deserts , b) entered the African jungle or c) ultimately searched for a possibly free land that, being arable and good for pasture, would keep them far from the sphere of the Christian Axumites.  

It would be very erroneous and highly unlikely to expect settled people to move to the desert. Such an eventuality would be a unique oxymoron in the History of the Mankind. Nomadic peoples move from the steppes, the savannas and the deserts to other parts of the steppes, the savannas and the deserts or preferably to fertile lands and settle there, at times crossing really long distances. However, settled people, if under pressure, move to other fertile lands that offer them the possibility of cultivation and pasture. When dispersed by the invading Sea Peoples, the Hittites moved from Anatolia to Northwestern Mesopotamia, crossing long distances; they did not cross shorter distance to settle in the small part of Central Anatolia that happened to be desert. The few scholars, who may think that Meroitic continuity can be found among the present day Beja and Hadendawa, are oblivious to the aforementioned reality that was never contravened throughout World History. In addition, the Blemmyes had never been friendly to the Meroites. Every now and then, they had attacked parts of the Nile valley and the Meroites had had to repulse them thence. It would rather be inconceivable for the Meroitic population, after seeing Meroe sacked by Ezana, to move to a land where life would be far more difficult and, in addition, enemies would wait them!  

At this point, we should briefly examine Meroe’s surrounding environment, how it is today, and how it was before 1650 years, at the times of king Ezana’s raid. Modern technologies help historians and archeologists better reconstruct the ancient world; paleo-botanists, geologists, geo-chemists, paleo-entomologists, and other specialized natural scientists are of great help in this regard. It is essential to stress here that the entire environmental milieu of Sudan was very different during the times of the Late Antiquity that we examine in our approach. Butana may look like a wasteland nowadays, and the Pyramids of Bagrawiyah may be sunk in the sand, whereas Mussawarat es Sufra and Naqah truly demand a real effort in crossing the desert. However, in the first centuries of Christian era, the entire landscape was dramatically different.

During the Meroitic and Christian times, the entire Butana region, delineated by the rivers Atbarah in the northeast, United Nile in the north-northwest, and Blue Nile in southwest, was not a desert, but a very fertile and extensively cultivated land. We have actually found remains of reservoirs, aqueducts, various hydraulic installations, irrigation systems, and canals in Meroe and elsewhere. Not far from Mussawarat es Sufra there must have been an enclosure where captive elephants were trained before being transported to Ptolemais Theron (present day Suakin, 50 km south of Port Sudan) and then further on to Alexandria. Desert was in the vicinity, certainly, but not that close.  

We should not imagine that Ezana crossed desert areas, moving from the vicinities of Agordat, Tesseney (both cities being located in Eritrea), and Kessala (in Sudan) to Atbarah and Bagrawiyah, as we would do today. These lands were either forested or cultivated and used as pasturelands. For what the Meroitic Ethiopian state was in the middle – second half of the 4th c. CE, its capital was located quite close to the Abyssinian borders in the mountains beyond the modern Sudanese city of Kessala; the distance between the two capitals, Meroe and Axum, was much smaller than the distance between Meroe and its northern borders with the Christian Eastern Roman Empire.  

In fact, the end of the Meroitic state is a historical irony; it was established with the transfer of capital from Napata to Meroe, ca. 750 years earlier, an act which was due to defense reasons and imposed only after the 6th c. BCE attacks that originated from the North (Egypt). By transferring their capital far to the southeast, the Ancient Kushites / Meroites of Ethiopia (Sudan) made it impregnable from the North; but by so doing, they exposed their capital to an attack from the southeast. However, one has to admit that, at the times of the Ethiopian – Kushitic capital transfer to the southeast (5th – 4th c. BCE), the presence of the Yemenite tribe of Habashat in the African coast land of Eritrea was insignificant and Axum did not exist.  

Further expanding on the natural environment of the Ancient Meroites, we have to add that it would be highly unlikely for anyone to attempt to cross at that time the lands south of present day Khartoum, alongside the White Nile. In ancient times, impenetrable jungle started immediately in the south of Khartoum, and cities like El Obeid, Kosti, Sinnar, and Jabalayn are today located on deforested soil.  

Contrarily to the aforementioned improbabilities (desert, jungle), the southernmost confines of the Meroitic state offered a certain possibility for migration, since pasturelands and arable land could be found alongside the Blue Nile Valley. Reaching that area, they would achieve safety from Axumite Abyssinia due to the greater distance.  

Jungle signified death in the Antiquity, and even armies feared to cross forests and be forced to stay overnight there. We therefore have good reason to believe that, following Ezana’s raid, the Meroites, rejecting the perspective of forced christening, moved first southwestwards up to Khartoum. From there, they proceeded southeastwards alongside the Blue Nile in a direction that would keep them always safe and far from the Axumite Abyssinians whose state did not expand at those days as far in the south as Gondar and Tana Lake. Proceeding in this way and crossing successively areas of modern cities like Wad Madani, Sennar, Damazin, and Asosa, and from there on, they expanded in later times over the various parts of Biyya Oromo.  

We do not imply that the migration was completed in the span of one lifetime; quite contrarily, we have reasons to believe that the establishment of Alodia (or Alwa) is rather due to the progressive waves of Meroitic migrants who settled first in the area of Khartoum that was out of the southwestern confines of the Meroitic state. Only when Christianization became a matter of concern for the evangelizing Nobatians, and the two Christian Sudanese states of Nobatia and Makuria were already strong, the chances of preserving the pre-Christian Meroitic cultural heritage in the area around Soba (capital of Alodia) became truly poor. Then, perhaps more than 100 years after the first migration, another wave of migration took place with the early Alodian Meroites proceeding as far in the southeast as Damazin and Asosa, areas that remained always beyond the southern border of Alodia (presumably between Khartoum and Wad Madani). Like this, the second migratory Meroitic Alodian) wave may have entered around 600 CE in the area where the Oromos, descendents of the migrated Meroites, still live today.  

Slide38

A great number of changes at the cultural – intellectual – behavioral levels are to be expected, when a settled people migrates to faraway lands. The Phoenicians had kings in Tyre, Byblos and their other cities – states in today’s Lebanese and Syrian coast lands, but they introduced a democratic system when they sailed faraway and colonized various parts of the Mediterranean. In their colonies, there were no more kings.  

Ezana’s raid ended up with the extermination of some garrison and the Meroitic royal family. The collapse of the Meroitic royalty was an unprecedented event and a greater shock for the Nile valley. The Christian kingdoms of Nobatia, Makuria and Alodia were all ruled by kings whose power was to great extent conditioned and counterbalanced by that of the Christian clergy.  

With the Meroitic royal family decimated by Ezana, it is quite possible that high priests of Apedemak and Amani (Amun) took much of the administrative responsibility in their hands, inciting people to migrate and establishing a form of collective and representative authority among the Meroitic – Alodian Elders who thus retained the sacerdotal heritage without a royal – palatial contextualization. They may even have preserved the royal title of Qore within completely different socio-anthropological context and thus made it known to the ancestors of today’s Somalis when the next waves of migration brought the two Kushitic nations close to one another; and the Somalis preserved the term a Boqor within their language until our times. 

4. Call for Comparative Meroitic-Oromo Studies  

How can this approach, interpretation, and conclusion be corroborated up to the point of becoming a generally accepted historical reconstitution at the academic level? On what axes should one group of researchers work to collect detailed documentation in support of the Meroitic ancestry of the Oromos?  

Quite strangely, I would not give priority to the linguistic approach. The continuity of a language can prove many things, and at the same time, it can prove nothing. Today’s Bulgarians are of Uralo-Altaic Turco-Mongolian origin, but, after they settled in Eastern Balkans, they were linguistically slavicized. Most of the Greeks are Albanians, Slavs, and Vlachians, who were greecized linguistically. Most of the Turks in Turkey are Greeks and Anatolians, who were turkicized linguistically.  

People can preserve their own language in various degrees and forms. For the case of languages preserved throughout millennia, we notice tremendous changes and differences. Within the context of Ancient Greece, Plato who lived in the 5th – 4th c. BCE could never understand the Achaean Greek dialect which was spoken 800 years earlier at Myceanae and written by means of what we call today ‘Linear B’ (a syllabic, not alphabetic, writing system).  

Egyptian hieroglyphics as a Holy Language (the Ancient Egyptian name of this writing system was ‘medu netsher’ which meant ‘the words of the God’) and as a sacerdotal scripture favored a certain archaism and a constant linguistic purification. However, we can be sure that for later Pharaohs, like Taharqa the Kushite (the most illustrious ruler of the Kushitic – Sudanese / Ethiopian dynasty), Psamtik and Nechao (the rulers of the ‘Libyan’ dynasty), and Ptolemy II and Cleopatra VII (of the Macedonian Ptolemaic dynasty), a Pyramid text (that antedated them by 1700 to 2300 years) would almost be incomprehensible. 

A. National diachronic continuity is better attested and more markedly noticed in terms of Culture, Religion and Philosophical – Behavioral system. The first circle of comparative research should encompass the world of the Kushitic / Meroitic and Oromo concepts, anything that relates to the Weltanschauung of the two cultural units/groups under study; this should involve a religious-historical comparison between the Ancient Kushitic / Meroitic religion and Waaqeffannaa. A common view of basic themes of life and a common perception of the world, same virtues and values, shared concepts and principles would bring a significant corroboration of the Meroitic ancestry of the Oromos. So, first it is a matter of history of religions, African philosophy, social anthropology, ethnography and culture history. 

B. Archeological research can help tremendously too. At this point, one has to state that the critical area for the reconstruction of the suggested Meroitic migration did not attract the interest of Egyptologists, and of archaeologists specializing in Meroitic and Sudanese Antiquities. The area was indeed marginal to both civilizations, and to some extent it is normal that it did not attract scholars who could easily unearth other monumental sites elsewhere and have more spectacular results. The Blue Nile valley in Sudan and Abyssinia was never the subject of an archeological survey, and the same concerns the Oromo highlands. Certainly modern archeologists prefer something concrete that would lead them fast to a great discovery, being therefore very different from the pioneering 19th c. archeologists. An archeological surface survey would therefore be necessary in the Blue Nile valley and in the Oromo highlands in the years to come.  

C. A linguistic – epigraphic approach may bring forth even more spectacular results. It could eventually end up with a complete decipherment of the Meroitic, and of the Makurian. An effort must be made to read the Meroitic texts, hieroglyphic and cursive, with the help of Oromo language. Meroitic personal names and toponymics must be studied in the light of a potential Oromo interpretation. Comparative linguistics may unveil affinities that will lead to reconsideration of the work done so far in the Meroitic decipherment. 

D. Last but not least, another dimension would be added to the project with the initiation of comparative anthropological studies. Data extracted from findings in the Meroitic cemeteries must be compared with data provided by the anthropological study of present day Oromos. The research must encompass pictorial documentation from the various Meroitic temples’ bas-reliefs.  

To all these I would add a better reassessment of the existing historical sources, but this is not a critical dimension of this research project.  

I believe my call for Comparative Meroitic – Oromo Studies reached the correct audience that can truly evaluate the significance of the ultimate corroboration of the Meroitic Ancestry of the Oromos, as well as the magnificent consequences that such a corroboration would have in view of  

a) the forthcoming Kushitic Palingenesia – or Renaissance if you want – across Africa,  

b) the establishment of a Post -Colonial African Historiography, and – last but not least –

c) the Liberation of Oromia and the Representation of the Ancient Kushitic Nation in the United Nations.  

Notes  

1. To those having the slightest doubt, trying for purely political reasons and evil speculation to include territories of the modern state of Abyssinia into what the Ancient Greeks and Romans called ‘Aethiopia’, the academically authoritative entry Aethiopia in Pauly-Wissowa, Realenzyklopadie der klassischen Altertumwissenschaft consists in the best and irrevocable answer.  

2. http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/information … karl.html; http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Richard_Lepsius; parts of the Denkmaeler are already available online: http://edoc3.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/bo … start.html. Also: http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/LEO_LOB/L … 1884_.html. The fact that the farthermost point of ‘Ethiopia’ that he reached was Khartoum is of course quite telling.  

3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E._A._Wallis_Budge; he wrote among the rest a book on his Meroe excavations’ results, The Egyptian Sudan: its History and Monuments (London, 1907).  

4. Mythical figure of the British Orientalism, Garstang excavated in England, Turkey, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and the Sudan; Albright, William Foxwell: “John Garstang in Memoriam”, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 144. (Dec., 1956), pp. 7-8; Garstang’s major articles on his Meroe excavations are the following: ‘Preliminary Note on an Expedition to Meroe in Ethiopia’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 3 (1911 – a), ‘Second Interim Report on the Excavations at Meroe in Ethiopia, I. Excavations’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 4 (1911 – b), ‘Third Interim Report on the Excavations at Meroe in Ethiopia’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 5 (1912), ‘Forth Interim Report on the Excavations at Meroe in Ethiopia’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 6 (1913), and ‘Fifth Interim Report on the Excavations at Meroe in Ethiopia’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 7 (1914). His major contribution was published in the same year under the title ‘Meroe, the City of Ethiopians’ (Oxford). A leading Meroitologist, Laszlo Torok wrote an entire volume on Garstang’s excavations at Meroe: Meroe City, an Ancient African Capital: John Garstang’s Excavations in the Sudan.  

5 Griffith was the epigraphist of Grastand and had already published the epigraphic evidence unearthed at Meroe in the chapter entitled ‘the Inscriptions from Meroe’ in Garstang’s ‘Meroe, the City of Ethiopians’. After many pioneering researches and excavations in various parts of Egypt and Northern Sudan, Faras, Karanog, Napata and Philae to name but a few, Griffith concentrated on Kerma: ‘Excavations at Kawa’, Sudan Notes and Records 14.  

6. Basically: http://www.sag-online.de/pdf/mittsag9.5.pdf; among other contributions: Die Inschriften des Loewentempels von Musawwarat es Sufra, Berlin (1962); Vorbericht ueber die Ausgrabungen des Instituts fuer Aegyptologie der Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin in Musawwarat es Sufra, 1960-1961 (1962); ‘Musawwarat es Sufra – Preliminary Report on the Excavations of the Institute of Egyptology, Humboldt University, Berlin, 1961-1962 (Third Season)’, Kush 11 (1963); ‘Preliminary Note on the Epigraphic Expedition to Sudanese Nubia, 1962’, Kush 11 (1963); ‘Preliminary note on the Epigraphic Expedition to Sudanese Nubia, 1963’, Kush 13 (1965)  

7. As regards my French professor’s publications about his excavations at Sudan: Soleb and Sedeinga in Lexikon der Aegyptologie 5, Wiesbaden 1984 (entries contributed by J. Leclant himself); also J. Leclant, Les reconnaissances archéologiques au Soudan, in: Etudes nubiennes I, 57-60.  

8. His recent volume Sudan: Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile, Paris/New York (1997) contains earlier bibliography.  

9. Some of his most authoritative publications: ‘A History of the Sudan from the Earliest Times to 1821′, 1961 (2nd Ed.), London; ”The Valley of the Nile’, in: The Dawn of African History, R. Oliver (ed.), London. Arkell is mostly renowned for his monumental ‘The Royal Cemeteries of Kush’ in many volumes.  

10. Presentation of his ‘Ancient Nubia’ in: http://www.keganpaul.com/product_info.p … cts_id=33; for a non exhaustive list of Shinnie’s publications: http://www.arkamani.org/bibliography%20 … ia2.htm#S; see also a presentation of a volume on Meroe, edited by Shinnie et alii: http://www.harrassowitz-verlag.de/mcgi/1163879905{haupt_harrassowitz= http://www.harrassowitz-verlag.de/acgi/a.cgi?alayout=489&ausgabe=detail&aref=353.  

11. Many of his publications are listed here:   http://www.arkamani.org/bibliography%20 … ia2.htm#S; also here: http://www.arkamani.org/bibliography%20 … ypt4.htm#T. In the Eighth International Conference for Meroitic Studies, L. Torok spoke about ‘The End of Meroe’; the speech will be included in the arkamani online project, here: http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … -meroe.htm  

12. Useful reading: http://www.culturekiosque.com/art/exhib … souda.htm; also: http://www.nubianet.org/about/about_history4.html; see also the entry ‘Kush’ in Lexikon der Aegyptologie and the Encyclopedia Judaica. More specifically about the Egyptian Hieroglyphic and the Hebrew writings of the name of Kush: http://www.specialtyinterests.net/journey_to_nubia.html. For more recent bibliography: http://blackhistorypages.net/pages/kush.php. Also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cush%2C_son_of_Ham.  

13. Basic bibliography in: http://www.arkamani.org/bibliography%20 … y_a_b.htm; http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/PROJ/NUB/NUBX … chure.html.   More particularly on Qustul, and the local Group A Cemetery that was discovered in the 60s by Dr. Keith Seele: http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/qustul.html (by Bruce Beyer Williams). Quite interesting approach by Clyde Winters as regards an eventual use of Egyptian Hieroglyphics in Group A Nubia, 200 years before the system was introduced in Egypt: http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Bay/7051/anwrite.htm.  

14. Brief info: http://www.nubianet.org/about/about_history3_1.html; see also: http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/IS/RITNER/Nubia_2005.html; more recently several scholars consider Group B as an extension of Group A (GRATIEN, Brigitte, La Basse Nubie a l’ Ancien Empire: Egyptiens et autochtones, JEA 81 (1995), 43-56).  

15. Readings: http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/geoghist/histories/oldcivilization/Egyptology/Nubia/nubiad1.htm; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sneferu; ht … %20Snefrue),%201st%20King%20of%20Egypt’s%204th%20Dynasty.htm (with bibliography); http://www.narmer.pl/dyn/04en.htm; for the Palermo stone inscription where we have the Nubia expedition narrative: http://www.britannica.com/ebi/article-9332360; http://www.ancient-egypt.org/index.html (click on the Palermo Stone); http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palermo_stone (with related bibliography). 

16. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nubian_C-Group; (the title being however very wrong because this culture was not Nubian) http://www.numibia.net/nubia/c-group.htm; http://www.gustavianum.uu.se/sje/sjeexh.htm and http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/ta/tae.html (with designs and pictures); http://www.ancientsudan.org/03_burials_02_early.htm (with focus on Group C burials and burial architecture); see also: http://www.ualberta.ca/~nlovell/nubia.htm; http://www.dignubia.org/maps/timeline/bce-2300a.htm  

17. References in the Lexikon der Aegyptologie. See also: http://www.nigli.net/akhenaten/wawat_1.html; one of the related sources: The Story of an Egyptian Politician, published by T. G. Allen, in: American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Vol. 38, No. 1 (Oct., 1921), pp. 55-62; Texts relating to Egyptian expeditions in Yam and Irtet: http://www.osirisnet.net/tombes/assouan … rkouf.htm; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medjay; more in ‘Ancient Nubia: Egypt’s Rival in Africa’ (Paperback) by David O’ Connor, http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/092417 … 67-0196731.  

18. Brief description: http://www.anth.ucsb.edu/faculty/stsmit … erma.html; http://www.spicey.demon.co.uk/Nubianpag … htm#French (with several interesting links); http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Kerma (brief but with recent bibliography containing some of Bonnet’s publications)  

19. Vivian Davies, ‘La frontiere meridionale de l’ Empire : Les Egyptiens a Kurgus, in: Bulletin de la Societe francaise d’ Egyptologie, 2003, no157, pp. 23-37 (http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=15281726); about the ongoing British excavations: http://www.sudarchrs.org.uk/page17.html; about the inscription of Thutmosis I: http://thutmosis_i.know-library.net; also: http://www.meritneith.de/politik_neuesreich.htm, and http://www.aegyptologie.com/forum/cgi-b … 0514112733.  

20. In brief and with images: http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/um/umj.html; also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kush (with selected recent bibliography) and http://www.mfa.org/collections/search_a … kage=26155 (for art visualization). The period is also called Napatan, out of the Kushitic state capital’s name: http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/kingaspalta.html.

21. To start with: http://www.bartleby.com/67/99.html; http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9054804/Napata; http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/archaeology … apata.html (including references); most authoritative presentation by Timothy Kendall ‘Gebel Barkal and Ancient Napata’ in: http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … nubia.htm; also: ‘the Rise of the Kushitic kingdom’ by Brian Yare, in: http://www.yare.org/essays/kushite%20ki … Napata.htm. For Karima, notice the interesting itinerary: http://lts3.algonquincollege.com/africa … /sudan.htm, and http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karima.  

22. Introductory reading: http://www.ancient-egypt.org/index.html (click on Manetho); http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manetho (with selected bibliography). Among the aforementioned, the entries Manethon (Realenzyklopaedie) and Manetho (Lexikon der Aegyptologie) are essential.  

23. For the Ethiopian dynasty, all the related entries in the Lexikon and the Realenzyklopaedie (Piankhi, Shabaka, Shabataka, Taharqa, Tanutamon) are the basic bibliography to start with; see also: http://www.ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/3017.html; the last edition (1996) of Kenneth Kitchen’s ‘The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100 – 650 BC)’, Warminster: Aris & Phillips Ltd, remains the best reassessment of the period and the related sources. Introductory information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shabaka; http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shabataka; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taharqa; and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tantamani. Also: http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/mentuemhat.html; critical bibliography for understanding the perplex period is to be found in Jean Leclant’s lectureship thesis (these d’ Etat) ‘Montouemhat, Quatrieme Prophete d’Amon’, (1961)  

24. Basics: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assarhaddon; the edition of the Assyrian emperor’s annals by R. Borger (Die Inschriften Assarhaddons, Koenigs von Assyrien, AfO 9, Graz, 1956) remain our basic reference to formal sources. More recently, F. Reynolds shed light on private sources, publishing ‘The Babylonian correspondence of Esarhaddon, and letters to Assurbanipal and Sin-Sarru-Iskun from Northern and Central Babylonia’ (SAA 18, 2004).  

25. For the Greater Emperor of the Oriental Antiquity: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashurbanipal; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shamash-shum-ukin; http://web.utk.edu/~djones39/Assurbanipal.html; until today we have to rely mostly on the voluminous edition of Assurbanipal’s Annals by Maximilian Streck (Assurbanipal und die letzten assyrischen Koenige bis zum Untergang Niniveh, Leipzig,1916); see also M. W. Waters’ Te’umman in the neo-Assyrian correspondence (Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1999, vol. 119, no3, pp. 473-477)  

26. Heliopolis (Iwnw in Egyptian Hieroglyphic, literally the place of the pillars; On in Hebrew and in Septuagint Greek) was the center of Egyptian monotheism, the holiest religious center throughout Ancient Egypt; it is from Heliopolis that emanated the two foremost Ancient Egyptian theological systems, namely the Isiac ideology and the Atum Ennead. Basic readings: the entry Heliopolis in Realenzyklopaedie and in Lexikon der Aegyptologie; more recently: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heliopolis_%28ancient%29.  

27. Basic readings: http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chron … tiki.html; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psammetichus_I; http://www.phouka.com/pharaoh/pharaoh/d … tik1.html; http://www.specialtyinterests.net/psamtek.html (with pictorial documentation). See also: http://www.nubianet.org/about/about_history6.html.  

28. Hakhamaneshian is the first Persian dynasty; it got momentum when Cyrus II invaded successively Media and Babylon. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achaemenid_dynasty (with selected bibliography); the 2nd volume of the Cambridge History of Iran is dedicated to Achaemenid history (contents: http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/c … 0521200911.  

29. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cambyses_II_of_Persia (with bibliography and sources). Cambyses invaded Kush and destroyed Napata at the times of Amani-natake-lebte, but his embattled army was decimated according to the famous narratives of Herodotus that still need to be corroborated. What seems more plausible is that, having reached in an unfriendly milieu of the Saharan desert where they had no earlier experience, the Persians soldiers, at a distance of no less than 4000 km from their capital, faced guerilla undertaken by the Kushitic army remnants and their nomadic allies.  

30. Nastasen was the last to be buried in Nuri, in the whereabouts of Napata. Contemporary with Alexander the Great, Nastasen fought against an invader originating from Egypt whose name was recorded as Kambasawden. This led many to confuse the invader with Cambyses, who ruled 200 years earlier (!). The small inscription on the Letti stela does not allow great speculation; was it an attempt of Alexander the Great to proceed to the south of which we never heard anything? Impossible to conclude; for photographical documentation: http://www.dignubia.org/bookshelf/ruler … 00017&ord=. Another interpretation: http://www.nubia2006.uw.edu.pl/nubia/ab … 94e6349d8b.  

31. Arkamaniqo was the first to have his pyramid built at Meroe, not at Napata. See: http://www.dignubia.org/bookshelf/ruler … 0018&ord=; http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergamenes. He inaugurated the architectural works at Dakka, the famous ancient Egyptian Pa Serqet, known in Greek literature as Pselkhis (http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/dakka.htm), in veneration of God Thot, an endeavour that brought the Ptolemies and the Meroites in alliance.  

32. For Abyssinia’s conversion to Christianity: http://www.spiritualite2000.com/page.php?idpage=555, and http://www.rjliban.com/Saint-Frumentius.doc. The Wikipedia entry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ezana_of_Axum) is written by ignorant and chauvinist people, and is full of mistakes, ascribing provocatively and irrelevantly to Ezana’s state the following territories (using modern names): ‘present-day Eritrea, northern Ethiopia, Yemen, southern Saudi Arabia, northern Somalia, Djibouti, northern Sudan, and southern Egypt’. This is just rubbish. All this shows how misleading this irrelevant ‘encyclopedia’ can at times be. Neither southern Egypt, nor northern Sudan, nor northern Somalia, nor Djibouti, nor Yemen, nor southern Saudi Arabia ever belonged to Ezana’s small kingdom that extended from Adulis to Axum. It is only after that king’s victory over Meroe that his kingdom included also a tiny portion of modern Sudan’s territories, namely the region between Kessala, Atbara and Bagrawiyah where the site of Ancient Meroe is located. But this was quite precarious and soon the Abyssinian control over that part of Ethiopia (: Sudan) ended.  

33. Richard A. Lobban, ‘The Nubian Dynasty of Kush and Egypt: Continuing Research on Dynasty XXV’: http://209.85.129.104/search?q=cache:4F … clnk&cd=2; these inscriptions were published as early as 1821: E. F. Gau, Nubische Denkmaeler (Stuttgart). Other early publications on Meroitic antiquities: E. Riippell, Reisen in Nubien, Kordofan, & c. (Frankfort a. M., 1829); F. Caillaud, Voyage a Meroe (Paris, 1826); J. L. Burckhardt, Travels in Nubia, e5fc. (London, 1819); G. Waddington and B. Hanbury, Journal of a Visit to some parts of Ethiopia (London, 1822); L. Reinisch, Die Nuba-Sprache (Vienna, 1879); Memoirs of the Societe khediviale de Geographic, Cairo. 

34. Readings: http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/candace.html; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shanakdakhete; more analytically: http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … graphy.htm. The only inscription giving her name comes from Temple F in Naga (REM 0039A-B). The name appears in Meroitic hieroglyphics in the middle of an Egyptian text. See also: Laszlo Torok, in: Fontes Historiae Nubiorum, Vol. II, Bergen 1996, 660-662. The first attempts to render full Meroitic phrases into hieroglyphs (not only personal names, as it was common earlier) can be dated from the turn of the 3rd / 2nd century BCE, but they reflect the earlier stage of the development.  

35. C. Rilly, ‘Les graffiti archaiques de Doukki Gel et l’apparition de l’ ecriture meroitique’. Meroitic Newsletter, 2003, No 30: 41-55, pl. IX-XIII (fig. 41-48).  

36. Michael H. Zach, ‘Aksum and the end of Meroe’, in: http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … s/Zach.htm. See also: http://www.soas.ac.uk/lingfiles/working … rowan2.pdf. Also: Clyde A. Winters, ‘Meroitic evidence for a Blemmy empire in the Dodekaschoinos’ in: http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … labsha.htm. Kharamadoye was a Blemmyan / Beja king who lived around the year 330 CE, and his inscription was curved on the Nubian/Blemmyan temple at Kalabsha (ancient Talmis) in the south of Aswan; more: M. S. Megalommatis, ‘Sudan’s Beja / Blemmyes, and their Right to Freedom and Statehood’, in: http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/8-16-2006-105657.asp, and in: http://www.sudaneseonline.com/en/article_929.shtml. More general: http://www.touregypt.net/kalabsha.htm.  

37. For Ballana: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ballana; http://www.numibia.net/nubia/sites_salv … p_Numb=13; http://www.dignubia.org/maps/timeline/ce-0400.htm; http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/fne … ndex.html; for the excavations carried out there: Farid Shafiq, ‘Excavations at Ballana, 1958-1959’, Cairo, 1963: http://www.archaeologia.com/details.asp?id=647.  

38. His publications encompass the following: ‘Karanog: the Meroitic Inscriptions of Karanog and Shablul’, (The Eckley B. Coxe Junior Expedition to Nubia VI), Philadelphia, 1911; ‘Meroitic Inscriptions, I, Soba to Dangul, Oxford, 1911; ‘Meroitic Inscriptions part II, Napata to Philae and Miscellaneous’, Egypt Exploration Society, Archaeological Survey of Egypt, Memoirs, London, 1912; ‘Meroitic Studies II’, in: Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, vol. 3 (1916).  

39. Readings: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergamenes; http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arqamani; list of sources concerning Ergamenes II: Laszlo Torok, ‘Fontes Historiae Nubiorum’, vol. II, Bergen 1996, S. 566-567; further: http://www.chs.harvard.edu/publications … tei.xml_1; http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Article/813603; an insightful view: Laszlo Torok, ‘Amasis and Ergamenes’, in: The Intellectual Heritage of Egypt. Studies Presented to Laszlo Kakosy, 555-561. An English translation of Diodorus’ text on Ergamenes (III. 6) is here: http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/diodorus.html.  

40. B. G. Haycock, ‘The Problem of the Meroitic Language’, Occasional Papers in Linguistics and Language Learning, no.5 (1978), p. 50-81; see also: http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … nology.htm. Another significant contribution: B. G. Haycock, ‘Towards a Data for King Ergamenes’, Kush 13 (1965)

41. See: K. H. Priese, ‘Die Statue des napatanischen Koenigs Aramatelqo (Amtelqa) Berlin, Aegyptisches Museum Inv.-Nr. 2249 in: Festschrift zum 150 jaehrigen Bestehen des Berliner Aegyptischen Museums, Berlin; of the same author, ‘Matrilineare Erbfolge im Reich von Napata’, Zeitschrift fuer Aegyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, 108 (1981).  

42. Readings: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ … /beja.htm; http://bejacongress.com;  

43. Basic reading: Egeimi, Omer Abdalla, ‘From Adaptation to Marginalization: The Political Ecology of Subsistence Crisis among the Hadendawa Pastoralists of Sudan’, in: Managing Scarcity: Human Adaptation in East African Drylands, edited by Abdel Ghaffar M. Ahmed and Hassan Abdel Ati, 30-49. Proceedings of a regional workshop, Addis Ababa, 24-26 August 1995. Addis Ababa: OSSREA, 1996 (http://www.africa.upenn.edu/ossrea/ossreabiblio.html).  

44. F. Hintze, ‘Some problems of Meroitic philology’, in: Studies in Ancient Languages of the Sudan, pp. 73-78; see discussions: http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Bay/7051/mero.htm and http://www.soas.ac.uk/lingfiles/working … rowan2.pdf

45. In various publications; see indicatively: ‘Die meroitische Sprache und das protoaltaische Sprachsubstrat als Medium zu ihrer Deutung (I): Mit aequivalenten von grammatikalischen Partikeln und Wortgleichungen’, Ulm/Donau (1992).  

46. See: http://www.geocities.com/athens/academy … ersc2.html (with extensive list of publications).  

47. Readings: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/kush/hd_kush.htm (with further bibliography); http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kushan_Empire; http://www.kushan.org; (with pictorial documentation) http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/kush/hd_kush.htm; http://www.asianart.com/articles/jaya/index.html (with references)  

48. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arsacid_Dynasty; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthia; authoritative presentation in Cambridge History of Iran  

49. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sassanid_Empire (with further bibliography); authoritative presentation in Cambridge History of Iran.  

50. See: http://arkamani.org/meroitic_studies/li … oitic.htm; http://arkamani.org/arkamani-library/me … rilly.htm; http://arkamani.org/arkamani-library/me … graphy.htm  

51. http://arkamani.org/arkamani-library/me … s/Zach.htm (with reference to epigraphic sources)  

52. More recently: R.Voigt, The Royal Inscriptions of King Ezana, in the Second International Littmann Conference: Aksum 7-11 January 2006 (see: http://www.oidmg.org/Beirut/downloads/L … Report.pdf); also: http://users.vnet.net/alight/aksum/mhak4.html; http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=37430160. Read also: Manfred Kropp, Die traditionellen Aethiopischen Koenigslisten und ihre Quellen, in: http://www2.rz.hu-berlin.de/nilus/net-p … listen.pdf (with bibliography).  

53. Readings: http://www.telemaco.unibo.it/epigr/testi05.htm; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monumentum_Adulitanum; http://www.shabait.com/staging/publish/ … 3290.html; http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/aksum.html; http://www.arikah.net/encyclopedia/Adulis; further: Yuzo Shitomi, ‘A New Interpretation of the Monumentum Adulitanum’, in: Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko, 55 (1997). French translation is available online here: http://www.clio.fr/BIBLIOTHEQUE/les_gre … hiopie.asp.  

54. Readings: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04404a.htm; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmas_Indicopleustes; text and translation can be found online: http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/awiesner/cosmas.html (with bibliography and earlier text/translation publications; http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/#Cosm … opleustes; and http://www.ccel.org/ccel/pearse/more … copleustes Also: http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/EMwebpages/202.html; http://davidburnet.com/EarlyFathers-Oth … eintro.htm.  

55. Readings: http://library.thinkquest.org/22845/kus … oyalty.pdf  

56. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shendi; N. I. Nooter, The Gates of Shendi, Los Angeles, 1999 (http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1565561)  

57. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atbarah; http://www.country-studies.com/sudan/th … ples.html; http://www.sudan.net/tourism/cities.html.  

58. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abu_Simbel; http://www.bibleplaces.com/abusimbel.htm; http://lexicorient.com/e.o/abu_simbel.htm  

59. Syene (Aswan): see the entries of Realenzyklopaedie and Lexikon der Aegyptologie; also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aswan; http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14367a.htm  

60. http://www.numibia.net/nubia/ptolemies.htm; http://rmcisadu.let.uniroma1.it/nubiaco … zymski.doc. Dodekaschoinos was the northern part of Triakontaschoinos; the area was essential for Roman border security: http://poj.peeters-leuven.be/content.ph … al_code=AS. More recently: http://dissertations.ub.rug.nl/facultie … f.dijkstra 

61. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dio_Cassius; see details of the early Roman rule over Egypt here: Timo Stickler, ‘Cornelius Gallus and the Beginnings of the Augustan Rule in Egypt’  

62. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strabo (particularly in his 17th book); English translation available here: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/R … 17A1*.htmlSlide70